Assessment of Rural Energy sources and Energy Consumption pattern in West Shewa and East WellegaZones, OromiaRegional National state, Ethiopia
Abstract— The study was conducted in West shewa and East wollega zones; Oromia Regional State with objective of the study is to identify the major rural source of energy consumption in the study area and to identify constraint and potential of energy use in the study area. About 141Male and 39 Female households were interviewed by structured questionnaire and data were analyzed by descriptive statistics under SPSS software. The characteristic of rural Energy source utilization , the majority of respondent uses firewood about 91.1% and about 16.9% the respondent uses agricultural residue for the purpose of baking Enjera , Firewood is the first widely used energy source, about 57.2% of the respondent uses Firewood and about 22.8% of the respondent uses charcoal for the purpose of heating mostly. About 55% the respondents uses kerosene and the respondent’s uses small size solar only about 20% for purpose of lighting. Electricity, battery cell, biogas was the lowest level energy sources of study area. In study area even if some rural HHs with access to electric service , they did not use for the purpose of Enjera baking as well as heating , only use for the purpose of lighting in study area. The main reasons for preference of biomass energy consumption in the study area is ease of access, cultural preference, cheap pricesandthe last reasons for choice biomass energy consumption is convenience when they used and no alternative source. Small HHs uses the available alternative energy technology like biogas, modern charcoal stove (leqach), Mirt stove, small size solar energy. Firewood and Agricultural residue were the potential energy sources in study area and unlike Agricultural research, lack of Research on Rural energy sources, lack of effective rural energy technology, socio-economic problem to accept available rural energy sources, lack of information where and how alternatives rural energy technology were identified as constraints of rural energy sources in study area. To fill these knowledge gap AERC, should be planned to introduce new Rural Energy sources and Woreda water, mine and energy office should disseminate the available alternative technologies for ruralhouseholds.
Keywords— Agricultural residue, Alternative Energy source, Biomass, Firewood, Rural Energy source.
Abstract— A study was conducted to evaluate rice germplasm for their arsenic content in different plant parts and phosphorus content in grains. Results showed that in the rice plant highest arsenic was accumulated in the roots and the lowest in the grain. The arsenic accumulation follows the order of root>shoot> leaf> grain. The results also revealed that IRRI dhan was quite tolerant to arsenic and Satabdi 1 was susceptible to arsenic accumulation during kharif season, whereas during boro season IET-4094 accumulated more arsenic in grain and IR-50 accumulated less arsenic in grain. Results also showed that kharif rice genotypes bore strong positive association between total phosphorus percent with arsenic content in grain, whereas strong negative association was found in boro season rice genotypes.
Keywords— Arsenic, Rice (oryza sativa L.), phosphorus, West bengal.
Purpose: Despite a particularly high suicide-related death rate observed in French farmers, data regarding this population’s perception of health and their potential difficulties in accessing health care remains scarce.Methods: We conducted a quantitative study involving 161 randomly selected farmers in three rural localities. Precarious conditions were assessed based on farmers’ EPICES scores, their quality of life using the SF12 score, and their psychological distress by means of the GHQ-12. At the same time, a qualitative study was performed consisting in 16 in-depth interviews.
Findings: In total, 112 farmers (70% of persons contacted), most of them working as breeders for the meat-processing industry, participated in the study. Amongst them, 14.3% had forgone doctor consultation within the last 12 months, and 19.6% had abstained from consulting a dentist. They expressed trust in their general practitioners but frequently resorted to alternative medicine or marginal practitioners when they considered their disease to be benign. The general physical health status measured using the SF12 was good in 84.5% of cases. However, 29.7% of respondents experienced psychological distress that seemed to originate primarily from the conflicting rhythms of agricultural timescales (seasonal calendar; local weather conditions; social rhythms, including administrative work; community rhythms). Factor analysis of mixed data showed that single farmers exhibiting social deprivation, who had inherited their farm, tended to be affected by psychological distress.
Conclusion: The consideration of mental distress in this identified population proves to be challenging issues that may help prevent suicide in farmers.
Key words: work stress, suicide, anthropology, access to health care.
Background: LGBTQ is prone high prevalence and has economic, social business grow in wet and warm countries. It becomes political issue Worldwide (Time magazine, June 12, 2017, page 7) in immigration and also president election campaign in industrial countries in the last decades.
Problem: Current effort from day care psychosocial early predictive and training, better therapy, law in sentence, marriage and immigration/ refugee has become topic of controversies feel not ended. From psychiatry social, transgender operation and hormonal have been the day fact, but not one make it clear from the molecular aspect as the cause, and what to do in prevention, promotion for keeping away from methylation and demethylation affect. This study digs the reference about CGG repeat in large to small DNMT off.
Objective: CGG repeat as the molecular aspect of methylation and demethylation beyond health science should build and known by decision and policy maker. Controversial are broad, LGBT problem are hug, increasing but attorney denies that gay people exist in their region (Times magazine, June 12, 2017, page 7).
Method: Systematic Review with Bayesian analysis and mathematical model.
Result: flowchart and table of 13 ref from CGG repeat in DNA methylation analysis, 2 Meta-analysis. Small/ grey zone CGG repeat associated with neuropsychiatric risk.
Discussion: Brain and behavior DNMT off functional.
Comparison: Law, neuropsychiatric/early social-education vs. ensure no to methylation and demethylation in wet and warm area.
Outcome: Winning the combat of LGBT prevalence.
Conclusion: Winning the combat of LGBT prevalence not with early psycho-social activity, but with molecular psycho forensic and that is through what cause small/ grey zone CGG repeat prevalence.
Keywords—psycho-social, psycho forensic, biophysics, grey zone. CGG repeat, brain and behavior of LGBT.
Identification and Mapping of Prone to Landslide in the Sub District of Kintamani, Bali Province, Indonesia
Abstract— This research was conducted in several locations of prone to landslides in the Sub District of Kintamani, Bangli Regency, Bali Province, Indonesia. Determining the research location is purposively, meaning intentionally determined by observing in the field to landslides during the rainy season 2016/2017. The purpose of research, namely: (1) identifying areas prone to landslides at several locations in the Sub District of Kintamani, Bangli Regency; (2) to mapping areas prone to landslides using geographical information systems (GIS), (3) to formulate the strategies to overcome landslides. The analytical method used is descriptive-qualitative, meaning that the results of field observations and interviews integrated and interpreted in a narrative-qualitative. Results of the analysis showed that the location is prone to landslides in the sub district of Kintamani are Villages of Selulung, Satra, Tanah Gambir, Tegallinggah, Pinggan, Songan, Kayu Selem, Blancan, Batur, Bubung Kelambu, Pura Tanah Mas, Mampeh, Yeh Mampeh, dan Penelokan, with total area of 144,36 ha. The cause of landslides are high rainfall, soil type regosol, geology, slope average above 15% and the use of land that is not paying more attention on land conservation. Further mapping of landslide-prone locations using Q-GIS and Google Earth. Strategies to overcome landslides is to avoid the cultivation of agriculture in areas prone to landslides, implement agroforestry systems, planting cover crops, making sewers or ditches, enforcing the rules of the spatial region and violators are given strict and severe sanctions.
Keywords— Mapping, Landslides, Kintamani.
Analyses of Community Attributes of Meiofauna Under A Pollution Regime in the Lower Bonny Estuary, Rivers State, Nigeria
Abstract— Meiofauna community attributes of the lower Bonny estuary was investigated under a pollution regime. This is germane because of the strategic importance of meiofauna in the food chain and the sustenance of any aquatic ecosystem. Five stations representing diverse land based activities such as refuse dump site, fuel depot, fishing-landing areas, residential housing and a station located up-stream (control) were chosen for investigation. The meiofauna samples were collected from sediments in three replicate spots per station per sampling months at low tide. Sediment samples were stirred through (63-212nm) meshes to separate meiofauna and organic debris. Meiofauna samples were processed by first washing Meiofauna through a sieve of fine mesh size made of silk material, in order to wash off formation and excess silt or mud. Meiofauna samples were sorted out and identified using standard keys. Result from field studies indicate that meiofauna population abundance and diversity varied slightly between stations and seasons. There was however, no established trend. Meiofauna were generally more abundant in the rainy season than in the dry season. In general, pollution indicator meiofaunal taxa were more in all stations except the control station; the increasing impact of pollutants in the river led to a rise in the relative abundance of r-strategist genera like Chromadora. We conclude that the application of meiofaunal indices can be a useful tool for assessing the environmental quality of estuarine ecosystems.
Keywords— Community structure, Pollution, Meiofauna, Bonny Estuary.
Abstract— Citrus is the third most important fruit crop in the world after apple and bananas, and the total area cultivated with the various Citrus cultivar covers over 7.2 million hectares, yielding total annual production of approximately 100 million metric tons of fruit. The genus Citrus possesses several undesirable characteristic including salt and cold sensitivity they are also susceptible to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Despit substantial genetic diversity and interspecific fertility, the genus Citrus includes some of the most difficult species to breeding. For example, most species are highly heterozygous and produce progeny that segregate widely for many characters when crosses are made. The juvenile periods are often very long, self- and cross-incompatibility and pollen and/or ovule sterility are relatively common, and the presence of adventitious somatic embryos in the nucellus of developing ovules of the most of Citrus greatly limits hybrid production. Genetic transformation is an alternative to overcome these difficulties. For successful transformation, regeneration of whole plants from the transformed cells is a prerequisite. On the other hand production of virus – free plants, development of new cultivars, and production of seedless fruit, production of flavonoid, micropropagation, germplasm conservation and cryopreservation are the other utilities of in vitro culture of Citrus.
Keywords— Citrus, Improvement, Tissue culture.
Environmental factors for transmission of Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in school age children in Zambia
Abstract— We conducted a study to establish the environmental factors that favour the transmission of two Soil Transmitted helminthes, namely hookworm and ascariasis, in school age children in two districts, Luanshya and Nchelenge, of Zambia in July 2015. Soil samples were collected from selected sites in Nchelenge and Luanshya districts and analysed for chemical and physical properties. The climatic patterns for the two districts were also analysed. Nchelenge district lay at a lower altitude (934m) than Luanshya district (1218m). The average monthly temperatures were significantly higher for Nchelenge than Luanshya (P=0.004). Other climatic factors analysed were comparable between the two districts (P>0.05). Comparison of soil physical properties between the two districts demonstrated that Bulk density was significantly higher for Nchelenge district than Luanshya district (P=0.004), Solid was higher for Nchelenge than Luanshya (P=0.015), Moisture content was higher for Luanshya than Nchelenge (P=0.003), Clay content was higher for Luanshya than Nchelenge (P=0.005), Total Sand was higher for Nchelenge than Luanshya (P=0.024), while Silt content was comparable between the two districts (P>0.05). Comparison of the soil texture between the two districts demonstrated that Nchelenge significantly had more Sand soil than Luanshya while Luanshya had Loamy-sand soil than Nchelenge (P=0.005). Comparison of Soil chemical properties between the two districts revealed similarities in pH, Total Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Organic carbon, Organic matter, Total carbon, and Lead (P>0.05) while mineral contents were higher for Luanshya than Nchelenge for Magnesium (P=0.018), Manganese (P=0.003), and Copper (P=0.007).
Keywords— children, climate, helminthes, minerals, soil.
Abstract— The present study was conducted to improve the nutritional composition of cakes and biscuits which are generally made with refined flour. Refined wheat flour was substituted with Germinated Sorghum Flour and Plantain Flour. Process parameters such as height, diameter, spread ratio and spread factor were recorded for biscuits. For cakes, process parameters such as batter pH, acidity, density, baking temperature and cake volume were assessed. Weight of biscuits increased from 8.05 g in control to 9.27 g in variation made with germinated sorghum and plantain. There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in spread ratio of biscuits with increased amount of germinated sorghum and plantain flours. The spread ratio reduced from 7.63 (control) to 6.68 indicating less spread of biscuits during baking. In conclusion, substitution of refined wheat flour with germinated sorghum and plantain provides dual benefits of improving nutritional quality of the baked products and also it improves process parameters which are essential for scale-up during commercial production of biscuits and cakes.
Keywords— Bakery products, germinated sorghum flour, plantain, high fibre, cakes, biscuits.
Prevalence of teat end hyperkeratosis in lactating dairy cattle and their association with animal variables
Abstract— Short and long-term changes in teat condition mainly caused by machine milking may affect the udder health of lactating dairy cattle. The objective was to investigate the prevalence of teat end hyperkeratosis scores in lactating dairy cattle in Germany and to determine associations between animal variables and teat end hyperkeratosis. The study was conducted in 15 German high-yielding dairy herds. On dairy farms teat size, teat shape, teat end shape and changes in teat condition (edema, teat skin colour, teat end hyperkeratosis) were recorded. In total, 4,022 animals of the breed German Holstein were included into the present study. For both front and rear teats associations between teat end hyperkeratosis and lactation number, teat length, teat diameter and teat end shape were found. Further research is needed to reduce the prevalence of teat end hyperkeratosis in high-yielding dairy herds and to improve the teat condition.
Keywords— Udder health, teat end hyperkeratosis, teat end shape.
Abstract— The article discusses the trends and prospects of development of the three sectors of rural entrepreneurship: corporate, individual and family, formal and informal; analyze the transformation of household farms; an assessment of efficiency of development of small forms of agricultural production, it is concluded that the major agricultural organizations lost their dominant position.
Keywords— agricultural production, farms, households, corporate sector, private sector.