Wednesday, 2 August 2017

Agriculture Journal: July issue 2017

Effect of different Mulching Materials on the Yield of Quality Protein Maize in Danbatta Local Government Area, Kano State Nigeria

Abstract Field research was conducted on the effects of different mulching materials on the yield of Quantity protein maize which include polythene sheet, dry grasses and control. The different mulching materials were tested on nine (9) ridges each measuring 10m. The research was laid out in a completely randomized block design each treatment replicated three times. The parameters measured include weight of cobs, weight of 100grain, and total grain, there was no statistical difference in the weight cobs among all the treatments, similarly, there was also no statistical different in the weight of 100 grain. As far the weight of grain per 5m2 there was a significant difference among the treatments with polythene sheet covered plots that have 0.25kg, however, the grass-mulched plots 0.16kg was statistically similar to the control plots 0.15kg. And finally for store weight observed per 5m2, polythene sheet covered plots were significantly higher than grass-mulched plots which are also significantly different to control plots with the values of 1.23kg, 1.21kg and 0.71kg respectively.

Keywords Mulch, grain, store, cob, polythene.

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Influence of Mulch and Ridge-tie on Soil Moisture retention and early growth of maize at Jega, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Abstract Water is one of the main requirements for healthy plant growth. Most arid and semi-arid regions, however, suffer from insufficient and unreliable rainfall. The prevailing soils generally cannot absorb the amount of water which rainfalls in such a short time. Based on this and many other factors a study was carried out to determine the influence of mulch and ridge tie on moisture retention and early growth of maize, at the Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Teaching and Research Farm Jega. The results shows that on a short term basis ridge tying had the highest amount of moisture, while on the long terms basis mulch had the highest moisture content and maize plant height is also more observed in the mulched plots as compared to ridge-tie respectively with the value of 45cm- 75cm, and 39cm al 54cm at 3 al 5 WAP respectively al dry matter yield also give a similar trend.

Keywords Mulch, ridge-tie, Moisture, dry spell, climate, infiltration.

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Presence of herpesvírus in diseased fishes

Abstract Herpesviruses that infect fishes belong to the Herpesvirales order and Alloherpesvirus family. In these species, the different types of herpesvirus can cause tumors, adenocarcinoma and skin lesions. This study aims detect to presence of herpesvirus in fishes from commercial, recreation or experimental creations of the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. Organ fragments and lesions of 53 fish species coming of mortality cases were forwarded at Biological Institute for examination by transmission electron microscopy by research of etiological agent. By transmission electron microscopy through negative staining technique, were observed herpes virus-like particles in 46 fishes and through embedding resin technique, in ultrathin sections were visualized herpes virus immature particles, measuring 90-110nm in diameter, located in the nuclei and complete particles measuring 160nm. In the histopathology technique, lesions associated with the virus as corpuscles inclusion, papillomas, and dermal lesions and in the gills were observed in 27 fishes. The evaluated techniques of TEM and the histopathology were effective for the rapid detection of herpesvirus in the examined samples.

Keywords Disease, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, herpesvirus.

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Defensive mechanisms in Plants: The role of component plant cells in defense against biotic and abitic stresses

Abstract Plants are often exposed to various environmental stresses such as extreme temperatures, drought, and disease and pest attack. In natural systems, plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus posses a myriad of defense and have evolved multiple defense mechanisms by which they are able to cope with various kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses. In fact plants defense against stresses by different ways. The role of cellular organelles is very important in this way. Cell wall and their derivatives such as oligosaccharins as biochemical defenser or for example trichomes as mechanical defenser is the frontline of the plant defense system. Also Plants have evolved a multi-layered immune system that dynamically responds to pathogens alike cell membrane that is a key mediator of communication between plants and microbes. Cytoplasm and the membrane-bounded structures (organelles) defense against different kind of stresses. The role of cellular organelles in plant defense relate to their enzymes primarily. Enzymes such as proteases, esterases and ribonucleases in cytoplasm, PM H+-ATPases in plasma membrane or β glucosidases included cyanogenic glucosides, saponins, glucosinolates or DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) glucoside in ER are responsible for plant defense. Also ROSs plus SA and JA in chloroplast and mitochondria play an important role in immune plant system. In nucleus macromolecules including nucleoporins, importins, and Ran-GTP-related components, are essential to mount an efficient immune response in response to different pathogens. And in Golgi apparatus, peroxysomes and vacuoles, glycosyltransferases, myrosinase and hydrolytic enzymes are liable for plant defense respectively.

Keywords biotic and abiotic stresses; organells; plant defense.

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Food Security Production Challenges in Indonesia as Impact of Global Climate Change

Abstract Global food availability, including national as well as local, is highly dependent on the natural resources that will affect crop production. Although there is rain, soil temperatures and conditions have formed a natural system that will support agricultural efforts, but this state is unstable and always changes according to atmospheric conditions in an integrated manner. Human beings on certain boundaries can intervene with the natural resources.

Climate (generally a combination of rain, temperature, and sunlight) is the most important growth factor in crop production in the field. Any change in climatic conditions will have far-reaching effects on global food production.

Global climate change, excessive land and land exploitation, inaccurate land management, in its time will have an impact on the food production and availability of a region. Knowing well the of nature characteristics, then anticipating the impact that will arise and determine the ways of handling it, is a series of business and activities that must be done to achieve food security.

To anticipate climate change and its impacts on crop production, a broad outline can be made by considering the following physical technic aspects: 1) adjusting cropping patterns; 2) increasing the area of forest cover and catchment areas; 3) application of land and crop management technology. Some application of land and crop management technologies include: organic farming, implementation of Surjan system, food diversification, large tree planting, water pond production, etc.

The policies that need to be taken as a solution in anticipating the impact of global climate change are 1) the preparation and stipulation of special food agriculture scenarios, including the zoning of production potential and zonation of climate risk (drought, flood, landslide, etc.) with the updating of data every year; 2) reducing the conversion of agricultural land (food); 3) incentives for farmers; 4) changing the consumption pattern of the people, from the consumption of rice to alternative staple foods; 5) subsidies and protection of food farming; 6) climate monitoring and prediction (early rainy season, long growing period, and potential water availability; 7) Revitalization of watershed (DAS) functions; 8) Multiply the artificial water absorption area.

Keywords Climate Change, Food Security, Land and Crop Management, Watershed.

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Polyamine and ethylene changes during floral initiation in response to paclobutrazol in mango (Mangifera indica L.)

Abstract Use of paclobutrazol is common strategy for inducing uniform and profuse flowering in mango. The possible mechanism by which paclobutrazol exert such responses are less understood. The present investigation was carried out to investigate possible role of polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis in the paclobutrazol induced floral induction in mango. Following paclobutrazol soil drenching application (1.25 g a.i. m-1) to mango cv. Totapuri, the free polyamine contents, ethylene production, 1-amino cyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ACC oxidase activity were determined in the apical buds and leaves of growing shoots at 4 distinct bud developmental stages numerically characterized as 510 (initiation of bud swelling), 511 (swollen buds), 513 (bud burst) and 515 (panicle emergence) according to standard BBCH scale. The total free polyamines, spermidine and spermine contents increased and ethylene production, ACC content and ACC oxidase activity decreased in the buds and leaves of paclobutrazol treated as compared to untreated trees. In general under paclobutrazol treatment, buds accumulated more polyamines than the leaves. With respect to the bud growth stages, total free polyamines, spermidine and spermine were high at 510/511 stage both in the paclobutrazol treated and untreated trees which declined progressively as shoots approached panicle emergence stage (515). The ethylene production, ACC and ACC oxidase activity exhibited trends opposite to that of polyamines. The study showed that polyamine – ethylene balance may control paclobutrazol induced floral bud induction in mango and accumulation of polyamines-spermidine and spermine in buds appeared as an important factor in facilitating floral induction response.

Keywords Ethylene biosynthesis, mango flowering, paclobutrazol, polyamines.

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Development of a Compact, Highly-sensitive and Low-cost Biological Monitoring Method using Protozoa for Detecting Toxicants in Aquatic Environment

Abstract A novel method for biological monitoring to detect toxic substances in water was developed by using the protozoan Raphidiophrys contractilis as an indicator organism. In this system (named HELIOSENSOR), the adhesion of R. contractilis to the substratum was used as a measure of the health of the living organisms. A flow-through type chamber was designed for toxicity testing, in which cells that had been damaged by harmful materials were flushed away by the water flow. The number of protozoa was continuously monitored with a digital camera. The test results revealed that this monitoring system has high durability and efficiency compared with other bio-monitoring systems, enabling us to make a quicker and easier detection of toxic substances. This system showed particularly high sensitivity to heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, lead and cadmium. Due to high sensitivity (ex. ~ 10-7 M for Hg2+), fast response time (<20 min) and small size (30×14×20 cm), this system has distinct advantages over other conventional biomonitoring systems using multicellular animals such as fish and crustaceans.

Keywords biomonitoring, heliozoa, protist, water quality control.

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Effect of tillage practices on moisture retention and maize (Zea mays L.) performance under rainfed conditions in Swaziland

Abstract- An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of tillage practices on moisture retention and maize performance under rainfed conditions in Swaziland. The five treatments were based on structure of seedbed and seed planting method. They were ; zero tillage where jab planter was used to directly seed (JAB), tractor drawn planter to directly seed without ploughing (TDSS), tractor drawn cultivator to loosen soil followed by planting with tractor planter (TDRDS), planting basics made by using hand hoe (PLB) and conventional tillage (CNT) which was used as a control. The treatments were replicated three times. The data collected included weather data, germination counts, plant height, moisture retention, total dry matter and dry grain yield. The results displayed a significant difference in terms of moisture retention for the majority of the periods where measurements were done (p<0.05). Conventional tillage retained the least moisture while JAB retained the most moisture. In terms of seed emergence, TDRDS had the highest emergence during the first seven days compared to the other treatments. Conventional tillage had the tallest plants (268.5 cm) compared to the other treatments at 21 days after planting. Conventional tillage also had the highest total dry matter (16.2 tons/ha) and planting basins had the lowest dry matter (12.6 tons/ha). TDRDS had the highest grain yield (9.9 tons/ha), and JAB had the lowest grain yield (9.1 tons/ha). The difference in mean total dry matter and mean grain yield was not significant (p>0.05).

Keywords-Germination, maize, moisture, tillage, yields.

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Effect of interaction between different plant growth regulators on in vitro shoot multiplication of Citrus latifolia Tan. (persian lime)

Abstract In this paper a shoot multiplication is described for Citrus latifolia Tan. (persian lime) using nodal segment explants of young one – old – year trees by two different pathways contain with and without callusing phase. The best result for multiple shoot formation and regenerated shoot formation was 3.2 and 2.6 shoots per explants with 4.44 µM BA plus 0.053 µM NAA and 4.44 µM BA plus 0.049 µM IBA respectively. Alike shoot regeneration, shoot elongation was occurred in medium with 4.44 µM BA and 0.049 µM IBA. Micropropagated and regenerated plants are under other experiments.

Abbreviation: BA – 6 benzylaminopurine; IBA – Indole acetic acid; NAA – Naphtalene acetic acid; PGRs – Plant Growth Regulators.

Key Words: Persian lime; plant growth regulators; shoot multiplication.

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Review on Management of Hospital Waste in An Efficient Manner

Abstract This is a review paper which is prepared from the surveys of hospitals and research studies. Hospital waste management in the world is a strict discipline and does occupy a serious place in the management of health care sector. The management of hospital remaining requires its removal and disposal from the health care establishments as hygienically and economically as possible by methods that all stages minimizes the risk to public health and to environment. Health care waste can be dangerous, if not done properly. Poor management of healthcare waste exposes health labors, waste handlers, and the community to the toxic effects of wastes generated from health activity. The disposal of these wastes could also lead to environmental problems. This article intends to describe various health care wastes and its controlling, as creating good practices for proper handling and disposal of health care waste is an important part of the health care delivery system. The aim of this paper is to highlight the present condition of medical waste and a review on scientific method of hospital waste management.

Keywords Environmental problems, Hazardous waste, Hospital waste management, Medical waste, waste generation.

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Sources of Risk and Management Strategies among Farmers in Rice Post Harvest Management in Niger State, Nigeria

Abstract The study examined sources of risk and management strategies among farmers in rice post harvest management in Niger State. The research was undertaken in five Local Government Areas of Niger State, namely Katcha, Lavun, Paikoro, Shiroro and Wushishi. Data obtained for the research was achieved through questionnaires administered to 200 farmers selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.

The study showed that rice post harvest management is carried out by subsistence farmer with average farm size of 2.7ha and are of active productive age of 31-50 years, who have 24 years farming experience in the rice post harvest management. The study revealed that farmers in the study area are affected by production risk, financial risk, human or personal risk, market or price risk and technological risk sources. The farmers have adopted prevention, mitigation and coping with risk as management strategies. Based on the findings the study recommended provision of credit facilities, rice post harvest machineries at subsidized rate, rural infrastructures, cooperative formation, use of extension officer and proper storage facilities.

Keywords Risk Management, Strategies, Rice, Farmers.

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Technical efficiency in rain-fed maize production in Adamawa state Nigeria: Stochastic approach

Abstract The study analysed the technical efficiency of rain-fed maize cultivation in Adamawa state, Nigeria using stochastic approach. The study was based on primary data collected from 140 respondents using simple random sampling for the period of 2014-15 Kharifmaize. The result reveals that resources were under-utilized in rain-fed maize cultivation in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Moreover, the mean technical efficiency of 0.69 indicates that an average farmer in the study area have the scope for increasing technical efficiency by 31 per cent in short-run under the existing technology. The study therefore, recommends that government should pay more attention on the land consolidation programme. It will help farmers to adopt improved agronomic practices and enhance the production and productivity of rain-fed maize production in Adamawa state.

Keywords Technical efficiency, Inefficiency parameters, Rain-fed Maize, Data, Random sampling.

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Priority of Water Supply Service for Community in Gresik City, East Java Province

Abstract— Water supply is one of important aspect and a priority in urban planning. The fulfillment of a water supply necessity for Gresik City is still not optimized. Gresik City consists of 2 districts, namely Gresik District and Kebomas District. Based on ministerial regulation 14/2010, coverage of water supply service at Gresik City was classified as bad with water supply service rate less than 50%. Hence, for the sake of optimizing and equity of water supply service at Gresik City, the identification of water supply service ratio of Gresik City and community’s perception of water supply service was needed. The research objective was to identify water supply service priority for community at Gresik City. The ratio analysis was done by calculation method based on water supply necessity and availability standard. While, the analysis of water supply service based on community’s perception was done by descriptive statistical analysis. The results showed that the highest ratio of water supply service was on Kroman Sub-District and the lowest ratio of water supply service was on Tenggulunan Sub-District. Based on community’s perception analysis, there are 93% of Gresik District residents and 75% of Kebomas District residents that haven’t used PDAM (local water supply company) water supply service. Furthermore, water supply service wasn’t optimized yet in term of water quality, quantity, continuity, so that the handling of water supply service was focused on sub-district with lowest water supply service ratio.

Keywords Service, water supply, Gresik City, Community.

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