Thursday, 31 August 2017

Agriculture Journal- August issue 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2017

Productivity and Quality of Hybrid Canola Oil and Seeding Time

Abstract Biofuels are the main alternative for changing the world's energy matrix, which is now centralized in fossil fuels. The characterization of alternative sources of biomass, mainly regionally, shapes database for decision making.For this purpose, a factorial experiment was carried out with three canola cultivars (Hyola 43, 61 and 571), seeded in four times (April 4th, April 16th, May 2nd and May 14th).As biomass characterization, grain yield, oil content and yield, specific mass, oxidative stability, acidity and lipid profile were determined. There was significant difference for the hybrids in the variables oil content, induction time and in the stearic, linoleic and linolenic contents. The highlight was the hybrid Hyola 43.There was significant difference for the periods in the grain yield, oil content, oil yield, and induction time and in the palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic contents. Considering values of dependent, quantitative and qualitative variables, the best seeding season of canola would be between the second fortnight of April and the first week of May.

Keywords Biodiesel, vegetable oils, fatty acid.

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Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units in patients of Chagas disease and Triatoma infestans after insecticide spraying in Chile

Abstract In this study, we evaluate mixed discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi present in 69 patients of Chagas disease and 92 Triatoma infestans collected under the entomological surveillance program after more than 20 years of intervention with insecticide spraying in Chile. Our aim is to identify T. cruzi DTUs still circulating in T. infestans and chronic patients to evaluate their impact on the environmental health in endemic areas of the country. Blood DNA or triatomine DNA was used as DNA template for PCR assays. For genotyping, different T. cruzi stocks were used to generate the DNA probes to determine four parasite DTUs or mixtures infecting each patient or vector by means of hybridization assays. We found different frequencies of T. cruzi DTUs in patients and in T. infestans. Tc I was the most frequent found in T. infestans, but was less frequent in humans. In contrast, in humans Tc V was most frequent but was less frequent in T. infestans. In conclusion, there were significant differences between the T. cruzi DTUs circulating in patients and vectors. We discussed these results in the context of what has being reported in Chile before the vector control, in neighboring countries, and the selection pressures existing for T. cruzi populations within the invertebrate and vertebrate hosts.

Keywords Chagas disease in Chile, Trypanosoma cruzi DTUs, Triatoma infestans, kinetoplast minicircles.

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Occupational Safety and Health Practices In Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisations, Western Kenya Region

Abstract The Kenya agricultural and livestock research organisation (KALRO) western region is divided into KALRO-Kakamega (non-ruminant) and KALRO-Kitale (food crops) mandated to innovate, improve technological activities that touch on the environment and the livelihood of people. Such practices should comply with occupational safety and health Act (OSHA, 2007) standards. The aim of the study was to assess safety awareness at KALRO-Western Kenya region during the months of April to June 2016. Structured questionnaires, checklist, photographs and observation tools were used for data collection and analyzed using statistical package (SPSS). Study shows that75% of the respondents in KALRO-Kakamega and 79% of the respondents in KALRO-Kitale (χ2=.187, df=1, p=.665) agreed that both institutes had safety and health policy. Respondents in KALRO-Kakamega (55%) and respondents in KALRO-Kitale (63%) (χ2=.813, df=1, p=.367) had access to such policies necessitating requirement for sensitization to access policy document. Respondents in KALRO-Kakamega(55%) and respondents in KALRO-Kitale (52%) (χ2=9.482, df=4, p=.050) indicated that only qualified service engineers maintained machines and equipment. The respondents in both KARLO institutions read labels before using the chemicals KARLO Kakamega 88.7% and KARLO-Kitale 84.2% (χ2=.511, df=1, p=.475).Compliance to Safe work procedure as per institution (KALRO-Kakamega 70%, KALRO-Kitale 63%) (χ2=.570, df=1, p=.450). From the research findings, there were no significant differences in predictor factors for safety awareness at both KALRO-Kakamega and KALRO-Kitale. Training of workers to identify, classify and quantify hazards should be enhanced at the two institutes in order to raise their safety awareness levels as per (OSHA, 2007) standards.

Keywords food crops research, health, KALRO, Non-ruminant research, safety.

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Meteorological Conditions: Influence on Yield, Sanitary Status and Grape Composition

Abstract The current study aimed to establish which meteorological conditions have the strongest impact on grapevine yield, sanitary status and berry composition, as well as checking their relative importance in relation to management practices and grapevine variety. Weather data was correlated to yield, sanitary status and grape composition of three varieties (Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot and Tannat) under two trellis systems (lyre and vertical shoot positioning), with or without yield control (pruning type and cluster thinning) over four seasons throughout the south of Uruguay. Principal component analysis showed that weather variables explained, respectively, 57.3%, 64.3% and 57.8% of the variance in yield, sanitary status and grape composition within the studied dataset. Hierarchical Clustering grouped years, confirming that the relevance of weather interannual variability was greater than that of genetics and management practices. Yield depended on bunch number, which was determined by rainfall and temperature. Water statuses during the first stage of the growing cycle are determinant for bunch rot infection, as well as thermal and hydric conditions that prevail during maturation. Grape compounds were positively correlated to thermal sum at the beginning of the growing cycle and negatively with high temperatures and water availability in maturation. Our results suggest that the favourable intervals of atmospheric conditions for yield and bunch rot are different from those for berry quality.

Keywords Berry quality, climate, genotype, viticultural practice, yield components.

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Effect of Copper Foliar Spray upon the Contents of Other Elements in Apple Leaves

Abstract Apple leaves of cultivars Topaz and Golden delicious, organically grown upon spindly shaped apple trees and grafted at 5 dwarfing rootstocks, were analyzed for 42 main and trace elements. Spraying a Cu-oxychloride particle suspension plus an adherent as a fungicide, induced some leaf concentration changes with respect to untreated control groups, though inputs of other elements from spraying were negligible. Cu- treatment tended to increase concentrations of Fe, Si and J, and to decrease Zn, Co and Cd in the leaves, because these effects appeared for both cultivars at all rootstocks. Other changes might be rather due to fertilization regime and climate.

Keywords apple leaves, Cu-spraying, trace elements, year-to-year variation.

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Ultrastructural Analysis of Pseudorabies Virus Infection in IB-RS-2 Cell Line and with Treatment by Persea americana Extract

Abstract In this study, we focused on the cycle of replication of the Pseudorabies virus (PrV) in the swine IB-RS-2 cell line in absence or in presence of an infusion from Persea americana leaves. The ultrastructure of the Nova Prata strain virus presents the typical characteristics of Varicelovirus as well as lytic replication with total cell destruction between 18 and 24 hours post-infection (pi). Adsorption is immediate followed by fusion penetration of the virus membranes with those of the host. The capsid once inside the cell migrates to the nucleus where it disappears. Precursor viral particles appear from 4 hours and will form the nuclear crystalloids. The capsids with the viral DNA incorporated migrate to the nuclear membranes where they receive viral envelope after de-envelopment and re-envelopment constituted by cytoplasmic membranes. Then the virions appear grouped in vesicles that merge with the plasma membrane and finally are released out of the cell and become associated with it. Infected cells in the presence of an infusion of Persea americana leaves show few viral particles and many cells without signs of infection. In the initial stages of replication, they are shown pleomorphic with a different morphology when compared with the control. At 7 h post-infection double core with a single envelope are found both between the nuclear membranes and in the cytoplasm of the cell. These findings indicate that the extract may be interfering with virus replication as well as useful in detecting possible targets of inhibition.

Keywords PrV; Aujeszky's disease virus; IB-RS-2 swine cell line; viral ultrastructure; antiviral; Persea americana.

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Mycobacterium gordonae infection in freshwater fish from lakes and ponds in a park at São Paulo city, Brazil

Abstract In recent year’s fish farming has greatly increased in Brazil, favoring the development of diseases such as mycobacteriosis. This is a chronic progressive disease that affects temperate and tropical fish, both freshwater and marine. Mycobacteriosis can occur in several species of fish and amphibian. In addition, some species of Mycobacterium spp. can be transmitted to humans by occupational or recreational source. A total of 54 fishes from lakes from São Paulo city, were collected and examined for mycobacteriosis. Granulomas were visualized in 5 fishes via histopathology (H&E), and acid-alcohol resistant bacilli were visualized in 8 animals by electron microscopy and 8 were positives using the Fite -Faraco technique. In this study, we isolated acid-fast bacillus from one fish which were identified as M. gordonae by molecular methods: PCR and sequencing.

Keywords mycobacteriosis, pathology, aquaculture, sanity, disease.

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Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practices in hand hygiene of students in biological sciences from Felix Houphouët-Boigny University of Cocody (Abidjan-Côte d’Ivoire)

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors, analyze and compare their effects on student hygiene behavior at Félix Houphouët-Boigny University. It is a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study, initially covering 333 students in the second and third year of Training and Research Unit of Biosciences from University Félix Houphouët-Boigny enrolled during the university year in 2015-2016. A total of 318 out of 333 students Interviewed or 95.49% attending the toilets. The majority of the students questioned, 219 (65.76%), had poor hand hygiene practices. There is a non-significant difference between hand hygiene practice and gender (p = 0.16). A staff of 325 students questioned out of 333 or 97.59% denounced a lack of toilets. 95.49% of them are aware of the handwashing procedure. The toilets are also used by girls and boys. We note an insignificant difference between toilet use and sex (p = 0.76).

The correct practice of handwashing is not practiced by the students of Training and Research Unit of Biosciences; this was confirmed by direct observation. In the area of toilet surveys, lacks of hygiene equipment and inadequate toilets have been reported.

Understanding the challenges of hand hygiene practice in academic may help in the development of hand hygiene promotion strategies for the prevention of infections, especially those that are handled. The promotion of hand hygiene should start with health education.

Keywords Hand, Hygiene, university, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Physicochemical Properties and Selected Heavy Metals in Tin-Mine Spoil Soils around Jos Plateau Nigeria

Abstract The physicochemical properties and heavy metals in both vegetated and non-vegetated spoil soils in Jos Plateau were determined. Three dug soil profiles and thirty three composite soil samples were collected with auger at depths of 0 – 15cm, 15 – 30cm and 30 – 50cm and analysed using standard methods. The results showed mean value ranges of 4.58 – 5.28 pH, 0.09 – 1.46 Organic matter, 42 84% Sand, 6 – 46% clay, 5 -29% silt, 0.022 - 0.110% total nitrogen, 14.80 – 41.44ppm available phosphorus, 3.13 – 5.00meq/100g exchangeable calcium, 1.45 – 2.35meq/100g exchangeable magnesium, 0.04 – 0.51meq/100g exchangeable potassium, 0.15 – 0.20meq/100g exchangeable sodium, 8.16 – 12.28meq/100g CEC126.80 – 778.33ppm Fe, 0.16 – 0.44ppm Al and 5.50 – 23.50ppm Mn. The soils were found to be predominantly Sandy Clay Loam, acidic and deficient in nutrients, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Exchangeable Bases. The concentrations of most parameters were higher in the cultivated spoil soils than in the uncultivated spoil soils. Land amendment materials such as organic wastes and town refuse ash should be applied to the soils in the area.

Keywords Tin mine, Spoil soils, Vegetated, Non-Vegetated, Jos Plateau, Nutrients, Cultivated.

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Regional Disparity Level at West Papua Province

Abstract A region possesses different potentials, conditions, and characteristics. Those aspects generate disparities between regions. Several factors that causing regional disparities related to physical and economic variables. Based on Gross Domestic Regional Product (PDRB) of West Papua Province 2012-2016, there were several sectors that significantly raised, i.e. mining and excavation, processing industry, and construction. Sorong City and Manokwari District had a domination role to the surrounding areas, and it affected into the imbalance growth speed of each areas, which in turn, it triggered the regional disparities. Manokwari is a capital of West Papua Province and a central of governmental activities, so the district got a fairly complete facilities, such as health, education, transportation, etc. The same condition was also applied to Sorong City. Therefore, the research objectives was to identify the regional disparity level reviewed from the population,, facilities and infrastructures, and regional economic based on Gini Index and Williamson Index. The results showed that the regional disparities on the scale of a province were medium level. On District scale, the results showed Pegunungan Arfak District was included in high level of disparity. Whereas the low level of disparity was concluded on Fakfak District, Kaimana District, Teluk Wondama District, Teluk Bintuni District, Manokwari Selatan District, Sorong District, and Raja Ampat District.

Keywords West Papua Province, disparity level, regional.

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A measure of marketing price transmission in the Red Onion Market of Sri Lanka

Abstract In the past there were several protectionist trade policies to safeguard the local onion production. This study examines their impact by means of nominal and effective protection rates and competiveness in resource utilization by competitiveness coefficient. There is a long-run co-integration relationship between the farm and the retail prices marketing margin resulting from this long-run relationship cause asymmetric short-run dynamic adjustments between the farm and the retail prices Welfare distribution among stakeholders is measured by classical welfare analysis. The analysis indicates that both big and red onion producers are noticeably protected by the trade policies and receive returns greater than they would get under a free market condition. Trade policies benefit consumers over producers. Gains to the nation are substantial.

Keywords Sri Lanka, Red Onion market, Transmission rate, onion production, farm.

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Protecting Human Health from Airborne Biological Hazardous Material by an Automatic Image Acquisition and Interpretation System

Abstract Human beings are exposed every day to bio-aerosols in their personal and/or professional life. The European Commission has issued regulations for protecting employees in the workplace from biological hazards. Airborne fungi can be detected and identified by an image-acquisition and interpretation system. In this paper we present recent results on the development of an automated image acquisition, sample handling and image-interpretation system for airborne fungi identification. We explain the application domain and describe the development issues. The development strategy and the architecture of the system are described and results are presented.

Keywords Health Monitoring, Microscopic image acquisition, microbiological sample handling, image analysis, image interpretation, case-based object recognition, case-based reasoning.

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