Saturday, 14 October 2017

Agriculture Journal- September issue 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-9, September 2017

Assessment of Rural Energy sources and Energy Consumption pattern in West Shewa and East WellegaZones, OromiaRegional National state, Ethiopia

Abstract— The study was conducted in West shewa and East wollega zones; Oromia Regional State with objective of the study is to identify the major rural source of energy consumption in the study area and to identify constraint and potential of energy use in the study area. About 141Male and 39 Female households were interviewed by structured questionnaire and data were analyzed by descriptive statistics under SPSS software. The characteristic of rural Energy source utilization , the majority of respondent uses firewood about 91.1% and about 16.9% the respondent uses agricultural residue for the purpose of baking Enjera , Firewood is the first widely used energy source, about 57.2% of the respondent uses Firewood and about 22.8% of the respondent uses charcoal for the purpose of heating mostly. About 55% the respondents uses kerosene and the respondent’s uses small size solar only about 20% for purpose of lighting. Electricity, battery cell, biogas was the lowest level energy sources of study area. In study area even if some rural HHs with access to electric service , they did not use for the purpose of Enjera baking as well as heating , only use for the purpose of lighting in study area. The main reasons for preference of biomass energy consumption in the study area is ease of access, cultural preference, cheap pricesandthe last reasons for choice biomass energy consumption is convenience when they used and no alternative source. Small HHs uses the available alternative energy technology like biogas, modern charcoal stove (leqach), Mirt stove, small size solar energy. Firewood and Agricultural residue were the potential energy sources in study area and unlike Agricultural research, lack of Research on Rural energy sources, lack of effective rural energy technology, socio-economic problem to accept available rural energy sources, lack of information where and how alternatives rural energy technology were identified as constraints of rural energy sources in study area. To fill these knowledge gap AERC, should be planned to introduce new Rural Energy sources and Woreda water, mine and energy office should disseminate the available alternative technologies for ruralhouseholds.

Keywords— Agricultural residue, Alternative Energy source, Biomass, Firewood, Rural Energy source.

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Response of Rice Genotypes to Arsenic Contaminated Field Condition during Kharif and Boro Season

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate rice germplasm for their arsenic content in different plant parts and phosphorus content in grains. Results showed that in the rice plant highest arsenic was accumulated in the roots and the lowest in the grain. The arsenic accumulation follows the order of root>shoot> leaf> grain. The results also revealed that IRRI dhan was quite tolerant to arsenic and Satabdi 1 was susceptible to arsenic accumulation during kharif season, whereas during boro season IET-4094 accumulated more arsenic in grain and IR-50 accumulated less arsenic in grain. Results also showed that kharif rice genotypes bore strong positive association between total phosphorus percent with arsenic content in grain, whereas strong negative association was found in boro season rice genotypes.

Keywords Arsenic, Rice (oryza sativa L.), phosphorus, West bengal.

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Health Issues and Mental Distress in French Active Farmers: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

Abstract

Purpose: Despite a particularly high suicide-related death rate observed in French farmers, data regarding this population’s perception of health and their potential difficulties in accessing health care remains scarce.

Methods: We conducted a quantitative study involving 161 randomly selected farmers in three rural localities. Precarious conditions were assessed based on farmers’ EPICES scores, their quality of life using the SF12 score, and their psychological distress by means of the GHQ-12. At the same time, a qualitative study was performed consisting in 16 in-depth interviews.

Findings: In total, 112 farmers (70% of persons contacted), most of them working as breeders for the meat-processing industry, participated in the study. Amongst them, 14.3% had forgone doctor consultation within the last 12 months, and 19.6% had abstained from consulting a dentist. They expressed trust in their general practitioners but frequently resorted to alternative medicine or marginal practitioners when they considered their disease to be benign. The general physical health status measured using the SF12 was good in 84.5% of cases. However, 29.7% of respondents experienced psychological distress that seemed to originate primarily from the conflicting rhythms of agricultural timescales (seasonal calendar; local weather conditions; social rhythms, including administrative work; community rhythms). Factor analysis of mixed data showed that single farmers exhibiting social deprivation, who had inherited their farm, tended to be affected by psychological distress.

Conclusion: The consideration of mental distress in this identified population proves to be challenging issues that may help prevent suicide in farmers.

Key words: work stress, suicide, anthropology, access to health care.

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LGBTQ: The Molecular Mechanism and its Role in Elucidating Proportional for a Better Management

Abstract

Background: LGBTQ is prone high prevalence and has economic, social business grow in wet and warm countries. It becomes political issue Worldwide (Time magazine, June 12, 2017, page 7) in immigration and also president election campaign in industrial countries in the last decades.

Problem: Current effort from day care psychosocial early predictive and training, better therapy, law in sentence, marriage and immigration/ refugee has become topic of controversies feel not ended. From psychiatry social, transgender operation and hormonal have been the day fact, but not one make it clear from the molecular aspect as the cause, and what to do in prevention, promotion for keeping away from methylation and demethylation affect. This study digs the reference about CGG repeat in large to small DNMT off.

Objective: CGG repeat as the molecular aspect of methylation and demethylation beyond health science should build and known by decision and policy maker. Controversial are broad, LGBT problem are hug, increasing but attorney denies that gay people exist in their region (Times magazine, June 12, 2017, page 7).

Method: Systematic Review with Bayesian analysis and mathematical model.

Result: flowchart and table of 13 ref from CGG repeat in DNA methylation analysis, 2 Meta-analysis. Small/ grey zone CGG repeat associated with neuropsychiatric risk.

Discussion: Brain and behavior DNMT off functional.

Comparison: Law, neuropsychiatric/early social-education vs. ensure no to methylation and demethylation in wet and warm area.

Outcome: Winning the combat of LGBT prevalence.

Conclusion: Winning the combat of LGBT prevalence not with early psycho-social activity, but with molecular psycho forensic and that is through what cause small/ grey zone CGG repeat prevalence.

Keywordspsycho-social, psycho forensic, biophysics, grey zone. CGG repeat, brain and behavior of LGBT.

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Identification and Mapping of Prone to Landslide in the Sub District of Kintamani, Bali Province, Indonesia

Abstract This research was conducted in several locations of prone to landslides in the Sub District of Kintamani, Bangli Regency, Bali Province, Indonesia. Determining the research location is purposively, meaning intentionally determined by observing in the field to landslides during the rainy season 2016/2017. The purpose of research, namely: (1) identifying areas prone to landslides at several locations in the Sub District of Kintamani, Bangli Regency; (2) to mapping areas prone to landslides using geographical information systems (GIS), (3) to formulate the strategies to overcome landslides. The analytical method used is descriptive-qualitative, meaning that the results of field observations and interviews integrated and interpreted in a narrative-qualitative. Results of the analysis showed that the location is prone to landslides in the sub district of Kintamani are Villages of Selulung, Satra, Tanah Gambir, Tegallinggah, Pinggan, Songan, Kayu Selem, Blancan, Batur, Bubung Kelambu, Pura Tanah Mas, Mampeh, Yeh Mampeh, dan Penelokan, with total area of ​​144,36 ha. The cause of landslides are high rainfall, soil type regosol, geology, slope average above 15% and the use of land that is not paying more attention on land conservation. Further mapping of landslide-prone locations using Q-GIS and Google Earth. Strategies to overcome landslides is to avoid the cultivation of agriculture in areas prone to landslides, implement agroforestry systems, planting cover crops, making sewers or ditches, enforcing the rules of the spatial region and violators are given strict and severe sanctions.

Keywords Mapping, Landslides, Kintamani.

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Analyses of Community Attributes of Meiofauna Under A Pollution Regime in the Lower Bonny Estuary, Rivers State, Nigeria

Abstract— Meiofauna community attributes of the lower Bonny estuary was investigated under a pollution regime. This is germane because of the strategic importance of meiofauna in the food chain and the sustenance of any aquatic ecosystem. Five stations representing diverse land based activities such as refuse dump site, fuel depot, fishing-landing areas, residential housing and a station located up-stream (control) were chosen for investigation. The meiofauna samples were collected from sediments in three replicate spots per station per sampling months at low tide. Sediment samples were stirred through (63-212nm) meshes to separate meiofauna and organic debris. Meiofauna samples were processed by first washing Meiofauna through a sieve of fine mesh size made of silk material, in order to wash off formation and excess silt or mud. Meiofauna samples were sorted out and identified using standard keys. Result from field studies indicate that meiofauna population abundance and diversity varied slightly between stations and seasons. There was however, no established trend. Meiofauna were generally more abundant in the rainy season than in the dry season. In general, pollution indicator meiofaunal taxa were more in all stations except the control station; the increasing impact of pollutants in the river led to a rise in the relative abundance of r-strategist genera like Chromadora. We conclude that the application of meiofaunal indices can be a useful tool for assessing the environmental quality of estuarine ecosystems.

Keywords Community structure, Pollution, Meiofauna, Bonny Estuary.

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The utilities of Citrus tissue culture

Abstract Citrus is the third most important fruit crop in the world after apple and bananas, and the total area cultivated with the various Citrus cultivar covers over 7.2 million hectares, yielding total annual production of approximately 100 million metric tons of fruit. The genus Citrus possesses several undesirable characteristic including salt and cold sensitivity they are also susceptible to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Despit substantial genetic diversity and interspecific fertility, the genus Citrus includes some of the most difficult species to breeding. For example, most species are highly heterozygous and produce progeny that segregate widely for many characters when crosses are made. The juvenile periods are often very long, self- and cross-incompatibility and pollen and/or ovule sterility are relatively common, and the presence of adventitious somatic embryos in the nucellus of developing ovules of the most of Citrus greatly limits hybrid production. Genetic transformation is an alternative to overcome these difficulties. For successful transformation, regeneration of whole plants from the transformed cells is a prerequisite. On the other hand production of virus – free plants, development of new cultivars, and production of seedless fruit, production of flavonoid, micropropagation, germplasm conservation and cryopreservation are the other utilities of in vitro culture of Citrus.

Keywords Citrus, Improvement, Tissue culture.

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Environmental factors for transmission of Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in school age children in Zambia

Abstract We conducted a study to establish the environmental factors that favour the transmission of two Soil Transmitted helminthes, namely hookworm and ascariasis, in school age children in two districts, Luanshya and Nchelenge, of Zambia in July 2015. Soil samples were collected from selected sites in Nchelenge and Luanshya districts and analysed for chemical and physical properties. The climatic patterns for the two districts were also analysed. Nchelenge district lay at a lower altitude (934m) than Luanshya district (1218m). The average monthly temperatures were significantly higher for Nchelenge than Luanshya (P=0.004). Other climatic factors analysed were comparable between the two districts (P>0.05). Comparison of soil physical properties between the two districts demonstrated that Bulk density was significantly higher for Nchelenge district than Luanshya district (P=0.004), Solid was higher for Nchelenge than Luanshya (P=0.015), Moisture content was higher for Luanshya than Nchelenge (P=0.003), Clay content was higher for Luanshya than Nchelenge (P=0.005), Total Sand was higher for Nchelenge than Luanshya (P=0.024), while Silt content was comparable between the two districts (P>0.05). Comparison of the soil texture between the two districts demonstrated that Nchelenge significantly had more Sand soil than Luanshya while Luanshya had Loamy-sand soil than Nchelenge (P=0.005). Comparison of Soil chemical properties between the two districts revealed similarities in pH, Total Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Organic carbon, Organic matter, Total carbon, and Lead (P>0.05) while mineral contents were higher for Luanshya than Nchelenge for Magnesium (P=0.018), Manganese (P=0.003), and Copper (P=0.007).

Keywords children, climate, helminthes, minerals, soil.

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Processing and sensory properties of high-fibre bakery products

Abstract The present study was conducted to improve the nutritional composition of cakes and biscuits which are generally made with refined flour. Refined wheat flour was substituted with Germinated Sorghum Flour and Plantain Flour. Process parameters such as height, diameter, spread ratio and spread factor were recorded for biscuits. For cakes, process parameters such as batter pH, acidity, density, baking temperature and cake volume were assessed. Weight of biscuits increased from 8.05 g in control to 9.27 g in variation made with germinated sorghum and plantain. There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in spread ratio of biscuits with increased amount of germinated sorghum and plantain flours. The spread ratio reduced from 7.63 (control) to 6.68 indicating less spread of biscuits during baking. In conclusion, substitution of refined wheat flour with germinated sorghum and plantain provides dual benefits of improving nutritional quality of the baked products and also it improves process parameters which are essential for scale-up during commercial production of biscuits and cakes.

Keywords Bakery products, germinated sorghum flour, plantain, high fibre, cakes, biscuits.

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Prevalence of teat end hyperkeratosis in lactating dairy cattle and their association with animal variables

Abstract Short and long-term changes in teat condition mainly caused by machine milking may affect the udder health of lactating dairy cattle. The objective was to investigate the prevalence of teat end hyperkeratosis scores in lactating dairy cattle in Germany and to determine associations between animal variables and teat end hyperkeratosis. The study was conducted in 15 German high-yielding dairy herds. On dairy farms teat size, teat shape, teat end shape and changes in teat condition (edema, teat skin colour, teat end hyperkeratosis) were recorded. In total, 4,022 animals of the breed German Holstein were included into the present study. For both front and rear teats associations between teat end hyperkeratosis and lactation number, teat length, teat diameter and teat end shape were found. Further research is needed to reduce the prevalence of teat end hyperkeratosis in high-yielding dairy herds and to improve the teat condition.

Keywords Udder health, teat end hyperkeratosis, teat end shape.

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Study of Development of Rural Entrepreneurship in Modern Russia

Abstract The article discusses the trends and prospects of development of the three sectors of rural entrepreneurship: corporate, individual and family, formal and informal; analyze the transformation of household farms; an assessment of efficiency of development of small forms of agricultural production, it is concluded that the major agricultural organizations lost their dominant position.

Keywords agricultural production, farms, households, corporate sector, private sector.

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Thursday, 31 August 2017

Agriculture Journal- August issue 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2017

Productivity and Quality of Hybrid Canola Oil and Seeding Time

Abstract Biofuels are the main alternative for changing the world's energy matrix, which is now centralized in fossil fuels. The characterization of alternative sources of biomass, mainly regionally, shapes database for decision making.For this purpose, a factorial experiment was carried out with three canola cultivars (Hyola 43, 61 and 571), seeded in four times (April 4th, April 16th, May 2nd and May 14th).As biomass characterization, grain yield, oil content and yield, specific mass, oxidative stability, acidity and lipid profile were determined. There was significant difference for the hybrids in the variables oil content, induction time and in the stearic, linoleic and linolenic contents. The highlight was the hybrid Hyola 43.There was significant difference for the periods in the grain yield, oil content, oil yield, and induction time and in the palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic contents. Considering values of dependent, quantitative and qualitative variables, the best seeding season of canola would be between the second fortnight of April and the first week of May.

Keywords Biodiesel, vegetable oils, fatty acid.

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Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units in patients of Chagas disease and Triatoma infestans after insecticide spraying in Chile

Abstract In this study, we evaluate mixed discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi present in 69 patients of Chagas disease and 92 Triatoma infestans collected under the entomological surveillance program after more than 20 years of intervention with insecticide spraying in Chile. Our aim is to identify T. cruzi DTUs still circulating in T. infestans and chronic patients to evaluate their impact on the environmental health in endemic areas of the country. Blood DNA or triatomine DNA was used as DNA template for PCR assays. For genotyping, different T. cruzi stocks were used to generate the DNA probes to determine four parasite DTUs or mixtures infecting each patient or vector by means of hybridization assays. We found different frequencies of T. cruzi DTUs in patients and in T. infestans. Tc I was the most frequent found in T. infestans, but was less frequent in humans. In contrast, in humans Tc V was most frequent but was less frequent in T. infestans. In conclusion, there were significant differences between the T. cruzi DTUs circulating in patients and vectors. We discussed these results in the context of what has being reported in Chile before the vector control, in neighboring countries, and the selection pressures existing for T. cruzi populations within the invertebrate and vertebrate hosts.

Keywords Chagas disease in Chile, Trypanosoma cruzi DTUs, Triatoma infestans, kinetoplast minicircles.

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Occupational Safety and Health Practices In Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisations, Western Kenya Region

Abstract The Kenya agricultural and livestock research organisation (KALRO) western region is divided into KALRO-Kakamega (non-ruminant) and KALRO-Kitale (food crops) mandated to innovate, improve technological activities that touch on the environment and the livelihood of people. Such practices should comply with occupational safety and health Act (OSHA, 2007) standards. The aim of the study was to assess safety awareness at KALRO-Western Kenya region during the months of April to June 2016. Structured questionnaires, checklist, photographs and observation tools were used for data collection and analyzed using statistical package (SPSS). Study shows that75% of the respondents in KALRO-Kakamega and 79% of the respondents in KALRO-Kitale (χ2=.187, df=1, p=.665) agreed that both institutes had safety and health policy. Respondents in KALRO-Kakamega (55%) and respondents in KALRO-Kitale (63%) (χ2=.813, df=1, p=.367) had access to such policies necessitating requirement for sensitization to access policy document. Respondents in KALRO-Kakamega(55%) and respondents in KALRO-Kitale (52%) (χ2=9.482, df=4, p=.050) indicated that only qualified service engineers maintained machines and equipment. The respondents in both KARLO institutions read labels before using the chemicals KARLO Kakamega 88.7% and KARLO-Kitale 84.2% (χ2=.511, df=1, p=.475).Compliance to Safe work procedure as per institution (KALRO-Kakamega 70%, KALRO-Kitale 63%) (χ2=.570, df=1, p=.450). From the research findings, there were no significant differences in predictor factors for safety awareness at both KALRO-Kakamega and KALRO-Kitale. Training of workers to identify, classify and quantify hazards should be enhanced at the two institutes in order to raise their safety awareness levels as per (OSHA, 2007) standards.

Keywords food crops research, health, KALRO, Non-ruminant research, safety.

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Meteorological Conditions: Influence on Yield, Sanitary Status and Grape Composition

Abstract The current study aimed to establish which meteorological conditions have the strongest impact on grapevine yield, sanitary status and berry composition, as well as checking their relative importance in relation to management practices and grapevine variety. Weather data was correlated to yield, sanitary status and grape composition of three varieties (Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot and Tannat) under two trellis systems (lyre and vertical shoot positioning), with or without yield control (pruning type and cluster thinning) over four seasons throughout the south of Uruguay. Principal component analysis showed that weather variables explained, respectively, 57.3%, 64.3% and 57.8% of the variance in yield, sanitary status and grape composition within the studied dataset. Hierarchical Clustering grouped years, confirming that the relevance of weather interannual variability was greater than that of genetics and management practices. Yield depended on bunch number, which was determined by rainfall and temperature. Water statuses during the first stage of the growing cycle are determinant for bunch rot infection, as well as thermal and hydric conditions that prevail during maturation. Grape compounds were positively correlated to thermal sum at the beginning of the growing cycle and negatively with high temperatures and water availability in maturation. Our results suggest that the favourable intervals of atmospheric conditions for yield and bunch rot are different from those for berry quality.

Keywords Berry quality, climate, genotype, viticultural practice, yield components.

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Effect of Copper Foliar Spray upon the Contents of Other Elements in Apple Leaves

Abstract Apple leaves of cultivars Topaz and Golden delicious, organically grown upon spindly shaped apple trees and grafted at 5 dwarfing rootstocks, were analyzed for 42 main and trace elements. Spraying a Cu-oxychloride particle suspension plus an adherent as a fungicide, induced some leaf concentration changes with respect to untreated control groups, though inputs of other elements from spraying were negligible. Cu- treatment tended to increase concentrations of Fe, Si and J, and to decrease Zn, Co and Cd in the leaves, because these effects appeared for both cultivars at all rootstocks. Other changes might be rather due to fertilization regime and climate.

Keywords apple leaves, Cu-spraying, trace elements, year-to-year variation.

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Ultrastructural Analysis of Pseudorabies Virus Infection in IB-RS-2 Cell Line and with Treatment by Persea americana Extract

Abstract In this study, we focused on the cycle of replication of the Pseudorabies virus (PrV) in the swine IB-RS-2 cell line in absence or in presence of an infusion from Persea americana leaves. The ultrastructure of the Nova Prata strain virus presents the typical characteristics of Varicelovirus as well as lytic replication with total cell destruction between 18 and 24 hours post-infection (pi). Adsorption is immediate followed by fusion penetration of the virus membranes with those of the host. The capsid once inside the cell migrates to the nucleus where it disappears. Precursor viral particles appear from 4 hours and will form the nuclear crystalloids. The capsids with the viral DNA incorporated migrate to the nuclear membranes where they receive viral envelope after de-envelopment and re-envelopment constituted by cytoplasmic membranes. Then the virions appear grouped in vesicles that merge with the plasma membrane and finally are released out of the cell and become associated with it. Infected cells in the presence of an infusion of Persea americana leaves show few viral particles and many cells without signs of infection. In the initial stages of replication, they are shown pleomorphic with a different morphology when compared with the control. At 7 h post-infection double core with a single envelope are found both between the nuclear membranes and in the cytoplasm of the cell. These findings indicate that the extract may be interfering with virus replication as well as useful in detecting possible targets of inhibition.

Keywords PrV; Aujeszky's disease virus; IB-RS-2 swine cell line; viral ultrastructure; antiviral; Persea americana.

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Mycobacterium gordonae infection in freshwater fish from lakes and ponds in a park at São Paulo city, Brazil

Abstract In recent year’s fish farming has greatly increased in Brazil, favoring the development of diseases such as mycobacteriosis. This is a chronic progressive disease that affects temperate and tropical fish, both freshwater and marine. Mycobacteriosis can occur in several species of fish and amphibian. In addition, some species of Mycobacterium spp. can be transmitted to humans by occupational or recreational source. A total of 54 fishes from lakes from São Paulo city, were collected and examined for mycobacteriosis. Granulomas were visualized in 5 fishes via histopathology (H&E), and acid-alcohol resistant bacilli were visualized in 8 animals by electron microscopy and 8 were positives using the Fite -Faraco technique. In this study, we isolated acid-fast bacillus from one fish which were identified as M. gordonae by molecular methods: PCR and sequencing.

Keywords mycobacteriosis, pathology, aquaculture, sanity, disease.

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Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practices in hand hygiene of students in biological sciences from Felix Houphouët-Boigny University of Cocody (Abidjan-Côte d’Ivoire)

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors, analyze and compare their effects on student hygiene behavior at Félix Houphouët-Boigny University. It is a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study, initially covering 333 students in the second and third year of Training and Research Unit of Biosciences from University Félix Houphouët-Boigny enrolled during the university year in 2015-2016. A total of 318 out of 333 students Interviewed or 95.49% attending the toilets. The majority of the students questioned, 219 (65.76%), had poor hand hygiene practices. There is a non-significant difference between hand hygiene practice and gender (p = 0.16). A staff of 325 students questioned out of 333 or 97.59% denounced a lack of toilets. 95.49% of them are aware of the handwashing procedure. The toilets are also used by girls and boys. We note an insignificant difference between toilet use and sex (p = 0.76).

The correct practice of handwashing is not practiced by the students of Training and Research Unit of Biosciences; this was confirmed by direct observation. In the area of toilet surveys, lacks of hygiene equipment and inadequate toilets have been reported.

Understanding the challenges of hand hygiene practice in academic may help in the development of hand hygiene promotion strategies for the prevention of infections, especially those that are handled. The promotion of hand hygiene should start with health education.

Keywords Hand, Hygiene, university, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Physicochemical Properties and Selected Heavy Metals in Tin-Mine Spoil Soils around Jos Plateau Nigeria

Abstract The physicochemical properties and heavy metals in both vegetated and non-vegetated spoil soils in Jos Plateau were determined. Three dug soil profiles and thirty three composite soil samples were collected with auger at depths of 0 – 15cm, 15 – 30cm and 30 – 50cm and analysed using standard methods. The results showed mean value ranges of 4.58 – 5.28 pH, 0.09 – 1.46 Organic matter, 42 84% Sand, 6 – 46% clay, 5 -29% silt, 0.022 - 0.110% total nitrogen, 14.80 – 41.44ppm available phosphorus, 3.13 – 5.00meq/100g exchangeable calcium, 1.45 – 2.35meq/100g exchangeable magnesium, 0.04 – 0.51meq/100g exchangeable potassium, 0.15 – 0.20meq/100g exchangeable sodium, 8.16 – 12.28meq/100g CEC126.80 – 778.33ppm Fe, 0.16 – 0.44ppm Al and 5.50 – 23.50ppm Mn. The soils were found to be predominantly Sandy Clay Loam, acidic and deficient in nutrients, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Exchangeable Bases. The concentrations of most parameters were higher in the cultivated spoil soils than in the uncultivated spoil soils. Land amendment materials such as organic wastes and town refuse ash should be applied to the soils in the area.

Keywords Tin mine, Spoil soils, Vegetated, Non-Vegetated, Jos Plateau, Nutrients, Cultivated.

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Regional Disparity Level at West Papua Province

Abstract A region possesses different potentials, conditions, and characteristics. Those aspects generate disparities between regions. Several factors that causing regional disparities related to physical and economic variables. Based on Gross Domestic Regional Product (PDRB) of West Papua Province 2012-2016, there were several sectors that significantly raised, i.e. mining and excavation, processing industry, and construction. Sorong City and Manokwari District had a domination role to the surrounding areas, and it affected into the imbalance growth speed of each areas, which in turn, it triggered the regional disparities. Manokwari is a capital of West Papua Province and a central of governmental activities, so the district got a fairly complete facilities, such as health, education, transportation, etc. The same condition was also applied to Sorong City. Therefore, the research objectives was to identify the regional disparity level reviewed from the population,, facilities and infrastructures, and regional economic based on Gini Index and Williamson Index. The results showed that the regional disparities on the scale of a province were medium level. On District scale, the results showed Pegunungan Arfak District was included in high level of disparity. Whereas the low level of disparity was concluded on Fakfak District, Kaimana District, Teluk Wondama District, Teluk Bintuni District, Manokwari Selatan District, Sorong District, and Raja Ampat District.

Keywords West Papua Province, disparity level, regional.

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A measure of marketing price transmission in the Red Onion Market of Sri Lanka

Abstract In the past there were several protectionist trade policies to safeguard the local onion production. This study examines their impact by means of nominal and effective protection rates and competiveness in resource utilization by competitiveness coefficient. There is a long-run co-integration relationship between the farm and the retail prices marketing margin resulting from this long-run relationship cause asymmetric short-run dynamic adjustments between the farm and the retail prices Welfare distribution among stakeholders is measured by classical welfare analysis. The analysis indicates that both big and red onion producers are noticeably protected by the trade policies and receive returns greater than they would get under a free market condition. Trade policies benefit consumers over producers. Gains to the nation are substantial.

Keywords Sri Lanka, Red Onion market, Transmission rate, onion production, farm.

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Protecting Human Health from Airborne Biological Hazardous Material by an Automatic Image Acquisition and Interpretation System

Abstract Human beings are exposed every day to bio-aerosols in their personal and/or professional life. The European Commission has issued regulations for protecting employees in the workplace from biological hazards. Airborne fungi can be detected and identified by an image-acquisition and interpretation system. In this paper we present recent results on the development of an automated image acquisition, sample handling and image-interpretation system for airborne fungi identification. We explain the application domain and describe the development issues. The development strategy and the architecture of the system are described and results are presented.

Keywords Health Monitoring, Microscopic image acquisition, microbiological sample handling, image analysis, image interpretation, case-based object recognition, case-based reasoning.

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Wednesday, 2 August 2017

Agriculture Journal: July issue 2017

Effect of different Mulching Materials on the Yield of Quality Protein Maize in Danbatta Local Government Area, Kano State Nigeria

Abstract Field research was conducted on the effects of different mulching materials on the yield of Quantity protein maize which include polythene sheet, dry grasses and control. The different mulching materials were tested on nine (9) ridges each measuring 10m. The research was laid out in a completely randomized block design each treatment replicated three times. The parameters measured include weight of cobs, weight of 100grain, and total grain, there was no statistical difference in the weight cobs among all the treatments, similarly, there was also no statistical different in the weight of 100 grain. As far the weight of grain per 5m2 there was a significant difference among the treatments with polythene sheet covered plots that have 0.25kg, however, the grass-mulched plots 0.16kg was statistically similar to the control plots 0.15kg. And finally for store weight observed per 5m2, polythene sheet covered plots were significantly higher than grass-mulched plots which are also significantly different to control plots with the values of 1.23kg, 1.21kg and 0.71kg respectively.

Keywords Mulch, grain, store, cob, polythene.

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Influence of Mulch and Ridge-tie on Soil Moisture retention and early growth of maize at Jega, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Abstract Water is one of the main requirements for healthy plant growth. Most arid and semi-arid regions, however, suffer from insufficient and unreliable rainfall. The prevailing soils generally cannot absorb the amount of water which rainfalls in such a short time. Based on this and many other factors a study was carried out to determine the influence of mulch and ridge tie on moisture retention and early growth of maize, at the Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Teaching and Research Farm Jega. The results shows that on a short term basis ridge tying had the highest amount of moisture, while on the long terms basis mulch had the highest moisture content and maize plant height is also more observed in the mulched plots as compared to ridge-tie respectively with the value of 45cm- 75cm, and 39cm al 54cm at 3 al 5 WAP respectively al dry matter yield also give a similar trend.

Keywords Mulch, ridge-tie, Moisture, dry spell, climate, infiltration.

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Presence of herpesvírus in diseased fishes

Abstract Herpesviruses that infect fishes belong to the Herpesvirales order and Alloherpesvirus family. In these species, the different types of herpesvirus can cause tumors, adenocarcinoma and skin lesions. This study aims detect to presence of herpesvirus in fishes from commercial, recreation or experimental creations of the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. Organ fragments and lesions of 53 fish species coming of mortality cases were forwarded at Biological Institute for examination by transmission electron microscopy by research of etiological agent. By transmission electron microscopy through negative staining technique, were observed herpes virus-like particles in 46 fishes and through embedding resin technique, in ultrathin sections were visualized herpes virus immature particles, measuring 90-110nm in diameter, located in the nuclei and complete particles measuring 160nm. In the histopathology technique, lesions associated with the virus as corpuscles inclusion, papillomas, and dermal lesions and in the gills were observed in 27 fishes. The evaluated techniques of TEM and the histopathology were effective for the rapid detection of herpesvirus in the examined samples.

Keywords Disease, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, herpesvirus.

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Defensive mechanisms in Plants: The role of component plant cells in defense against biotic and abitic stresses

Abstract Plants are often exposed to various environmental stresses such as extreme temperatures, drought, and disease and pest attack. In natural systems, plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus posses a myriad of defense and have evolved multiple defense mechanisms by which they are able to cope with various kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses. In fact plants defense against stresses by different ways. The role of cellular organelles is very important in this way. Cell wall and their derivatives such as oligosaccharins as biochemical defenser or for example trichomes as mechanical defenser is the frontline of the plant defense system. Also Plants have evolved a multi-layered immune system that dynamically responds to pathogens alike cell membrane that is a key mediator of communication between plants and microbes. Cytoplasm and the membrane-bounded structures (organelles) defense against different kind of stresses. The role of cellular organelles in plant defense relate to their enzymes primarily. Enzymes such as proteases, esterases and ribonucleases in cytoplasm, PM H+-ATPases in plasma membrane or β glucosidases included cyanogenic glucosides, saponins, glucosinolates or DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) glucoside in ER are responsible for plant defense. Also ROSs plus SA and JA in chloroplast and mitochondria play an important role in immune plant system. In nucleus macromolecules including nucleoporins, importins, and Ran-GTP-related components, are essential to mount an efficient immune response in response to different pathogens. And in Golgi apparatus, peroxysomes and vacuoles, glycosyltransferases, myrosinase and hydrolytic enzymes are liable for plant defense respectively.

Keywords biotic and abiotic stresses; organells; plant defense.

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Food Security Production Challenges in Indonesia as Impact of Global Climate Change

Abstract Global food availability, including national as well as local, is highly dependent on the natural resources that will affect crop production. Although there is rain, soil temperatures and conditions have formed a natural system that will support agricultural efforts, but this state is unstable and always changes according to atmospheric conditions in an integrated manner. Human beings on certain boundaries can intervene with the natural resources.

Climate (generally a combination of rain, temperature, and sunlight) is the most important growth factor in crop production in the field. Any change in climatic conditions will have far-reaching effects on global food production.

Global climate change, excessive land and land exploitation, inaccurate land management, in its time will have an impact on the food production and availability of a region. Knowing well the of nature characteristics, then anticipating the impact that will arise and determine the ways of handling it, is a series of business and activities that must be done to achieve food security.

To anticipate climate change and its impacts on crop production, a broad outline can be made by considering the following physical technic aspects: 1) adjusting cropping patterns; 2) increasing the area of forest cover and catchment areas; 3) application of land and crop management technology. Some application of land and crop management technologies include: organic farming, implementation of Surjan system, food diversification, large tree planting, water pond production, etc.

The policies that need to be taken as a solution in anticipating the impact of global climate change are 1) the preparation and stipulation of special food agriculture scenarios, including the zoning of production potential and zonation of climate risk (drought, flood, landslide, etc.) with the updating of data every year; 2) reducing the conversion of agricultural land (food); 3) incentives for farmers; 4) changing the consumption pattern of the people, from the consumption of rice to alternative staple foods; 5) subsidies and protection of food farming; 6) climate monitoring and prediction (early rainy season, long growing period, and potential water availability; 7) Revitalization of watershed (DAS) functions; 8) Multiply the artificial water absorption area.

Keywords Climate Change, Food Security, Land and Crop Management, Watershed.

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Polyamine and ethylene changes during floral initiation in response to paclobutrazol in mango (Mangifera indica L.)

Abstract Use of paclobutrazol is common strategy for inducing uniform and profuse flowering in mango. The possible mechanism by which paclobutrazol exert such responses are less understood. The present investigation was carried out to investigate possible role of polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis in the paclobutrazol induced floral induction in mango. Following paclobutrazol soil drenching application (1.25 g a.i. m-1) to mango cv. Totapuri, the free polyamine contents, ethylene production, 1-amino cyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ACC oxidase activity were determined in the apical buds and leaves of growing shoots at 4 distinct bud developmental stages numerically characterized as 510 (initiation of bud swelling), 511 (swollen buds), 513 (bud burst) and 515 (panicle emergence) according to standard BBCH scale. The total free polyamines, spermidine and spermine contents increased and ethylene production, ACC content and ACC oxidase activity decreased in the buds and leaves of paclobutrazol treated as compared to untreated trees. In general under paclobutrazol treatment, buds accumulated more polyamines than the leaves. With respect to the bud growth stages, total free polyamines, spermidine and spermine were high at 510/511 stage both in the paclobutrazol treated and untreated trees which declined progressively as shoots approached panicle emergence stage (515). The ethylene production, ACC and ACC oxidase activity exhibited trends opposite to that of polyamines. The study showed that polyamine – ethylene balance may control paclobutrazol induced floral bud induction in mango and accumulation of polyamines-spermidine and spermine in buds appeared as an important factor in facilitating floral induction response.

Keywords Ethylene biosynthesis, mango flowering, paclobutrazol, polyamines.

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Development of a Compact, Highly-sensitive and Low-cost Biological Monitoring Method using Protozoa for Detecting Toxicants in Aquatic Environment

Abstract A novel method for biological monitoring to detect toxic substances in water was developed by using the protozoan Raphidiophrys contractilis as an indicator organism. In this system (named HELIOSENSOR), the adhesion of R. contractilis to the substratum was used as a measure of the health of the living organisms. A flow-through type chamber was designed for toxicity testing, in which cells that had been damaged by harmful materials were flushed away by the water flow. The number of protozoa was continuously monitored with a digital camera. The test results revealed that this monitoring system has high durability and efficiency compared with other bio-monitoring systems, enabling us to make a quicker and easier detection of toxic substances. This system showed particularly high sensitivity to heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, lead and cadmium. Due to high sensitivity (ex. ~ 10-7 M for Hg2+), fast response time (<20 min) and small size (30×14×20 cm), this system has distinct advantages over other conventional biomonitoring systems using multicellular animals such as fish and crustaceans.

Keywords biomonitoring, heliozoa, protist, water quality control.

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Effect of tillage practices on moisture retention and maize (Zea mays L.) performance under rainfed conditions in Swaziland

Abstract- An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of tillage practices on moisture retention and maize performance under rainfed conditions in Swaziland. The five treatments were based on structure of seedbed and seed planting method. They were ; zero tillage where jab planter was used to directly seed (JAB), tractor drawn planter to directly seed without ploughing (TDSS), tractor drawn cultivator to loosen soil followed by planting with tractor planter (TDRDS), planting basics made by using hand hoe (PLB) and conventional tillage (CNT) which was used as a control. The treatments were replicated three times. The data collected included weather data, germination counts, plant height, moisture retention, total dry matter and dry grain yield. The results displayed a significant difference in terms of moisture retention for the majority of the periods where measurements were done (p<0.05). Conventional tillage retained the least moisture while JAB retained the most moisture. In terms of seed emergence, TDRDS had the highest emergence during the first seven days compared to the other treatments. Conventional tillage had the tallest plants (268.5 cm) compared to the other treatments at 21 days after planting. Conventional tillage also had the highest total dry matter (16.2 tons/ha) and planting basins had the lowest dry matter (12.6 tons/ha). TDRDS had the highest grain yield (9.9 tons/ha), and JAB had the lowest grain yield (9.1 tons/ha). The difference in mean total dry matter and mean grain yield was not significant (p>0.05).

Keywords-Germination, maize, moisture, tillage, yields.

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Effect of interaction between different plant growth regulators on in vitro shoot multiplication of Citrus latifolia Tan. (persian lime)

Abstract In this paper a shoot multiplication is described for Citrus latifolia Tan. (persian lime) using nodal segment explants of young one – old – year trees by two different pathways contain with and without callusing phase. The best result for multiple shoot formation and regenerated shoot formation was 3.2 and 2.6 shoots per explants with 4.44 µM BA plus 0.053 µM NAA and 4.44 µM BA plus 0.049 µM IBA respectively. Alike shoot regeneration, shoot elongation was occurred in medium with 4.44 µM BA and 0.049 µM IBA. Micropropagated and regenerated plants are under other experiments.

Abbreviation: BA – 6 benzylaminopurine; IBA – Indole acetic acid; NAA – Naphtalene acetic acid; PGRs – Plant Growth Regulators.

Key Words: Persian lime; plant growth regulators; shoot multiplication.

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Review on Management of Hospital Waste in An Efficient Manner

Abstract This is a review paper which is prepared from the surveys of hospitals and research studies. Hospital waste management in the world is a strict discipline and does occupy a serious place in the management of health care sector. The management of hospital remaining requires its removal and disposal from the health care establishments as hygienically and economically as possible by methods that all stages minimizes the risk to public health and to environment. Health care waste can be dangerous, if not done properly. Poor management of healthcare waste exposes health labors, waste handlers, and the community to the toxic effects of wastes generated from health activity. The disposal of these wastes could also lead to environmental problems. This article intends to describe various health care wastes and its controlling, as creating good practices for proper handling and disposal of health care waste is an important part of the health care delivery system. The aim of this paper is to highlight the present condition of medical waste and a review on scientific method of hospital waste management.

Keywords Environmental problems, Hazardous waste, Hospital waste management, Medical waste, waste generation.

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Sources of Risk and Management Strategies among Farmers in Rice Post Harvest Management in Niger State, Nigeria

Abstract The study examined sources of risk and management strategies among farmers in rice post harvest management in Niger State. The research was undertaken in five Local Government Areas of Niger State, namely Katcha, Lavun, Paikoro, Shiroro and Wushishi. Data obtained for the research was achieved through questionnaires administered to 200 farmers selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.

The study showed that rice post harvest management is carried out by subsistence farmer with average farm size of 2.7ha and are of active productive age of 31-50 years, who have 24 years farming experience in the rice post harvest management. The study revealed that farmers in the study area are affected by production risk, financial risk, human or personal risk, market or price risk and technological risk sources. The farmers have adopted prevention, mitigation and coping with risk as management strategies. Based on the findings the study recommended provision of credit facilities, rice post harvest machineries at subsidized rate, rural infrastructures, cooperative formation, use of extension officer and proper storage facilities.

Keywords Risk Management, Strategies, Rice, Farmers.

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Technical efficiency in rain-fed maize production in Adamawa state Nigeria: Stochastic approach

Abstract The study analysed the technical efficiency of rain-fed maize cultivation in Adamawa state, Nigeria using stochastic approach. The study was based on primary data collected from 140 respondents using simple random sampling for the period of 2014-15 Kharifmaize. The result reveals that resources were under-utilized in rain-fed maize cultivation in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Moreover, the mean technical efficiency of 0.69 indicates that an average farmer in the study area have the scope for increasing technical efficiency by 31 per cent in short-run under the existing technology. The study therefore, recommends that government should pay more attention on the land consolidation programme. It will help farmers to adopt improved agronomic practices and enhance the production and productivity of rain-fed maize production in Adamawa state.

Keywords Technical efficiency, Inefficiency parameters, Rain-fed Maize, Data, Random sampling.

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Priority of Water Supply Service for Community in Gresik City, East Java Province

Abstract— Water supply is one of important aspect and a priority in urban planning. The fulfillment of a water supply necessity for Gresik City is still not optimized. Gresik City consists of 2 districts, namely Gresik District and Kebomas District. Based on ministerial regulation 14/2010, coverage of water supply service at Gresik City was classified as bad with water supply service rate less than 50%. Hence, for the sake of optimizing and equity of water supply service at Gresik City, the identification of water supply service ratio of Gresik City and community’s perception of water supply service was needed. The research objective was to identify water supply service priority for community at Gresik City. The ratio analysis was done by calculation method based on water supply necessity and availability standard. While, the analysis of water supply service based on community’s perception was done by descriptive statistical analysis. The results showed that the highest ratio of water supply service was on Kroman Sub-District and the lowest ratio of water supply service was on Tenggulunan Sub-District. Based on community’s perception analysis, there are 93% of Gresik District residents and 75% of Kebomas District residents that haven’t used PDAM (local water supply company) water supply service. Furthermore, water supply service wasn’t optimized yet in term of water quality, quantity, continuity, so that the handling of water supply service was focused on sub-district with lowest water supply service ratio.

Keywords Service, water supply, Gresik City, Community.

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Agriculture journal: June Issue 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-6, June 2017

Assessment of Post-Harvest Loss and Waste for Date Palms in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abstract Estimated dates loss at harvest time include shees & besr, eating by birds, falling, insects and dust mite, and healthy fruits of three cultivars from the date palm orchards in al-Ahsa Oasis (Khalas, Shishi and Ruzeize), in Al-Qaseem (Sukkary, Khudry and Segae), in Madinah (Safawi, Anbara, Ajweh). In Riyadh (Khalas, Sagei and Nabtet Seif). The highest losses during harvest time in Al-Ahsa were in Khals, then comes Shishi then Ruzeize. In Qaseem, the least affected variety was Sukkari, then Khudri then Segae. In Medina, Anbara was the most affected variety then comes Safawi then Ajweh. In Riyadh, the most affect variety was Nabtet Seif then comes Khalas then Segae. The average level of loss during the marketing phase was about 5-10 % in most varieties and locations except Ajweh in Riadh (<5%), and Shagra in Qassem (16-20%). The major causes of waste were the dates’ small size, and cuts and browses.

Photography analysis showed that dates are dramatically affected by various pest infestation and non-pathological disorders. The average of general dates disorders or dates damages was 12.6%, which represents the percentage of dates loss of most commonly ones in the major date production regions in Saudi Arabia. In addition, eleven dates variety commercially available were collected at Alahsa dates retail market which produced by the major production regions; Alahsa, Riyadh, Qaseem and Madina. The data showed that the average of general dates disorders or dates damage were the highest for Shishi and Shbibi in AlAhsa (33%), while the lowest was for Ajweh in Medina (2.7% only).

Keywords— Post-Harvest Loss, Waste, Date Palms, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, harvest time.

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Hydrogen Bonding - The Key to Desalination (A Review)

Abstract Energy crisis today is a major matter of concern. Energy is the most essential ingredient in the process of economic growth and development. The search for alternative sources for various unit operations such as evaporation, drying, distillation, etc. has been in continuum but without much success. Industries being the major consumers of energy, its efficient usage and minimal wastage are of profound importance.

ETPs or Effluent Treatment Plants are one of the components of a majority of the industry where a lot of energy is consumed. In every ETP, separate equipments are present to treat salt water. Desalination techniques such as Flash and Multi Effect Distillation in thermal, Electro dialysis and Reverse Osmosis (RO) in membrane category and many other processes such as freezing and humidification are used. For instance RO today is the most commonly used method for desalination. But the problem that accompanies it is that RO rejects concentrated brine solution every time it is used. This massive tonnage of salt water is then sent through a set of Multi-Effect Evaporators which not only increases the cost but majorly increases the energy requirement. The real problem with all the methods used is the need optimum economic designs and higher efficiency requirements thus making it both eco-friendly and economical for the industry. Modifications and innovations such as Incorporation of vacuum in humidification system increases the evaporation rate of water due to reduction in boiling point. In Electrodialysis, ion exchange resins are incorporated between the electrodes which help separate out ions into continuous streams. These provide continuity to the process and also enhance its rate. But still the need for energy turns out to be the major issue. This paper suggests an alternative innovative technique reduction in h bonding of water that can virtually eliminate the excessive energy needs in these processes.

Keywords Desalination, RO, Electrodialysis, Humidification, Solvents.

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Comparative Analysis of the proximate Composition of palmyrah pinattu and flours (Odiyal, Boiledodiyal)

Abstract Palmyrah (Borassusflabellifer) fruit is mostly used as fresh fruit, because of its perishable nature it is traditionally preserved as dried fruit pulp called as pinattu (fruit leather). It contained pectin as well as contain appreciable amount of saponinbecause of that fruit pulp having important medicinal properties. Considering these facts the phytochemical constituents of solvent extracts of pinattuwas identified and evaluated. Samples was collected from the three different branches ofPalmyrah Development Board.

Pinattu, boiled odiyal flour and odiyal flour contained 16.6±(0.008), 11.66±(0.001), 10.66±0.001 g/100g of moisture, 2.23±0.062, 6.51±0.062, 6.7813±0.06 g/100g of protein, 0.08±0.001, 0.28±0.008, 0.43±0.013 g/100g of Fat, 0.04±0.001, 0.02±0.0003, 0.02±0.0002 g/100g of Ash, 5.06±0.01, 7.13±0.18, 4.49±0.15 g/100g of crude fiber and (75.91±0.61, 74.37±0.65, 77.59±0.5 g/100g of carbohydrate respectively. There were significant different (p<0.05) between the each samples for all the nutrient content except moisture content.

Keywords Pinattu, Odiyalflour, Boiled odiyal flour, Nutritional.

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Continuously flow microwave pre-treatment for enhanced anaerobic biodegradability of dairy industry sludge

Abstract Our research has focused on the investigation of the applicability of continuously flow microwave pre-treatment process for anaerobic digestion of dairy industry sludge. In the continuously flow operation effects of microwave specific process parameters, i.e. specific irradiated energy and microwave power level, were examined on the biogas yield and anaerobic digestion rate. Furthermore, the efficiency of process was characterized based on energetic analysis, as well. Our results show, that depend on the irradiated energy level the microwave power has effect on biogas yield, and determine the biodegradation rate, as well. Higher energy irradiation or higher power has been manifested in enhanced anaerobic digestion, but over a certain value of them led to worsened methane content. Considering the results obtained from energetic analysis can be concluded, that microwave pre-treatment followed by anaerobic digestion is efficient if irradiated energy was kept lower level (100 kJ L-1, in present experiments) with microwave power levels of 536 W, or 700W, respectively. Too high energy intensity at high power level, or too low microwave power, independently from the extent of irradiated energy, led to higher energy demand of pre-treatment, than can be recovered as energy content of surplus biogas.

Keywords anaerobic digestion, biogas, energy efficiency, microwave, sludge.

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Preservative Effects of Different Treatments and Their Flavor Acceptability in Cashew Apple and Pineapple Blend Juice

Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the stability of a cashew apple and pineapple blend juice (25:75 v / v). Various treatments were applied, including pasteurization (92 C, 15 min), aqueous extract of ginger (2.5 and 10%) and potassium sorbate (1g/kg). The physicochemical results revealed that the addition of the aqueous extract of ginger caused an increase in the content of ascorbic acid, total sugars, proteins and minerals such as magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and zinc. The microbiological analysis showed lower microbial counts of the treated samples compared to the control. The different treatments could have an antimicrobial effect. The sensory analysis reveals a general acceptability for all the samples formulated. This acceptability value is higher for the sample supplemented with 10% aqueous extract of ginger. With a view to preservation without chemical preservatives while improving nutrient content, the 10% aqueous ginger extract could help extend the shelf life of fruit juice drinks.

Keywords Drink, pineapple, cashew apple, preservatives, quality.

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Utilization of Marginal Soils with Application of Phosphorus and Ethephon for Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) cultivation

Abstract Abundance of marginal soils is among the major constraint to achieve high yield for crop production due to unsuitable physical and chemical properties of the soils. Commonly, farmers would manage the marginal soil by adding soil amendment, compost and fertilizer which increase the cost of production. Alternatively, application of fertilizer together with plant growth regulator (PGR) during crop management can be practiced to utilize the marginal soil effectively. The aim of this experiment was to determine effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer and PGR namely ethephon on growth performance of sweet corn grown in three marginal soils namely Rasau, Kuah and Dampar. The treatments were arranged as factorial randomized complete block design with four rates of P fertilizer and standard rate of ethephon replicated four times. The results indicated that the physical properties of the marginal soils vary which Rasau dan Kuah series have low content of silt (10.30% and 36.10%), respectively and clay (9.40% and 11.86%) while Dampar series has low sand content (21%). Consequently, Dampar series depicted highest soil moisture content (18.80%) compared to Rasau and Kuah with high content of silt and clay at 42.43% and 36.43%, respectively. At tasseling stage, where application of P fertilizer with combination of ethephon at 0 and 15 kg P2O5 ha-1 there were significant difference between soil series on root length, total biomass wet and dry weight but exception for total biomass dry weight at 0 kg P2O5 ha-1. Moreover, at 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 there were significant difference among soil series on leaf number and total biomass dry weight whereas at highest P rate of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 only root length and root volume were affected. Most of the results were observed highest on Rasau soil series which contain highest sand particle instead of silt and clay compared to Kuah and Dampar series. However, the addition of ethephon and several P rates did not affect plant height among soil series. The results suggest that, the marginal soil can be utilized for sweet corn production by addition of combined P fertilizer at low rate and PGR.

Keywords— Zea mays L. saccharata, marginal soil, phosphorus, ethephon, plant growth.

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Evolution of the fruit market in the city of Lavras-Minas Gerais-Brazil

AbstractFruit growing has achieved advances through the use of new technologies generated by research. In Brazil, it is one of the most prominent sectors in agribusiness, achieving significant results and generating business opportunities. In this way, the fruit market has grown considerably in the last decades, both in quantity and in quality. Allied to this, the changes in consumer behavior regarding food consumption has been responsible for the increase of the fruit market. The objective of this work was to know the evolution of the fruit trade in the city of Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to the quantity sold, monetary value, losses in the gondolas of retail establishments and per capita consumption of the population of this city.

KeywordsMarket, Fruits, Consumption, food, Brazil.

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Technical Efficiency of Soya Beans Production in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the technical efficiency of soya bean production in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to examine the inputs and output relationship of soya bean production in the study area. A multi stage random sampling techniques was used to select 80 respondents in the study area who were noted for soya beans production. Primary data were collected from the respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire and were analyzed using stochastic frontier function. It was therefore recommended that inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and agrochemicals which were the major inputs that increase the output of soya bean production in the study area should be made available on time, in right amounts and at affordable prices to the farmer’s stakeholders in agriculture. Proper orientation and knowledge should be given to people willing to go into the cultivation of soya beans on the appropriate time of planting. Extension services should also be rendered effectively.

Keywords— Soya Beans production, Adamawa state, Nigeria, Mubi north, Nigeria.

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The effect of organic mulch on the growth and yield of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L)

Abstract An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland to determine the effect of organic mulch on the growth and yield of spinach. The experiment was conducted between the months of January and February, 2017. The experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD), with treated sewage mulch (TSM) and organic compost mulch (OCM) as treatments. The no mulch (NML) was used as a control. Spinach seedlings were planted at a spacing of 15 cm within rows and 30 cm between rows. Weeding and pest control measures were done uniformly across the treatments, when and as required. The data collected included the percentage moisture retained by the different treatments on the soil, growth parameters (leaf width, leaf length, leaf number, leaf area, plant height) and yield at harvest. The results displayed a significant difference (P<0.05) between the treatments in terms of the moisture retention properties. Organic compost mulch recorded the highest mean percentage moisture retention (22.9%), followed by treated sewage mulch (20.9%) and no mulch recorded the lowest percentage moisture retention in the soil (14.4%). All the growth parameters were higher for spinach growth under TSM, followed by that grown under OCM. They were lowest under spinach grown under no mulch. The differences in mean for parameters were significant (p<0.05). The yield also varied across the treatments as TSM had a dry mass of 43.0 g, followed by OCM at 23.4 g and the no mulch treatment recorded a dry mass of 20.9 g. The results showed that mulching improved the performance of the spinach plants in terms of plant growth, moisture retention and yield.

KeywordsCompost, mulch, organic, sewage, spinach.

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Long term effect of integrated nutrient management on soil properties and availability of nutrients in a Typic Hapludalfs under maize-wheat cropping

Abstract To study the long term effect of integrated nutrient management on soil properties and available nutrients, surface and subsurface soil samples were drawn from the long-term field experiment (LTFE) which is in progress on a Typic Hapludalfs at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, CSK HPKV, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India since Rabi, 1972. The rotation followed was maize-wheat and the treatments included various combinations of N, P, K, Zn, lime, hand weeding and farm yard manure. Results from the study showed that integrated nutrient management over the years resulted in improvement in the soil properties as well as status of available nutrients in the soil at both the depths. Continuous application of urea as a source of N has resulted in acidification of soils (pH 4.3) while lime application increased the pH to 6.2 in the surface soil and 6.0 in subsurface soil. The treatment 100 % NPK + FYM resulted in 66 per cent increase in soil organic carbon content over initial value. Similar effects were recorded on cation exchange capacity and available nutrients. It can be concluded from the study that integrated nutrient management is essential to maintain soil health.

Keywords Integrated nutrient management, soil properties, long-term effect.

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