Friday, 8 December 2017

Agriculture Journal: November 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-11, November 2017

Possible New Species of Araecerus (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) associated with Mastixiodendronpachyclados (Rubiaceae) of Papua New Guinea

Abstract Araecerus is genus of beetles of the Anthribidae family which are important economic pests of various crops including coffee (Rubiaceae), with A.fasciculatus (Degeer) being the common pest (weevil) of coffee beans. This paper presents a study in which five undescribed species of genus Araecerus were reared predominantly from the seeds of M.pachyclados (Rubiceae), a native tree of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Fruits of M. pachyclados were regularly sampled and insects attacking them were reared, preserved and identified. Fruits were hand collected, photographed, weighed and reared. Insects emerging from the fruits were captured and preserved in 99% ethanol. All the specimens were identified into morphospecies at the laboratory. The five new species discovered were designated as A. sp.1, A. sp.2, A. sp.3, A. sp.4 and A.sp.5. This was accorded based on differences in body length; scutellum color, size, hair-scales and visibility; length of first and second segments of fore tarsus; apical and subapical teeth-size (mandible and maxillary palpi); declivity of dorsal abdomen; basal-anterior eye markings; lateral eye markings; absence of eye markings; and shape of pygidium. We discovered A. sp.1 has yellowish gold marking inside the base of the eye, A. sp.2 with pygidium almost vertically-flat at abdominal apex, A. sp.3 has eyes without yellowish gold marking and generally dark in color, A. sp.4 with distinct yellowish gold interior-lateral marking in its eye, and A. sp.5 with pygidium pointed at abdominal apex.

Keywords Araecerus, coleoptera, anthribidae, Mastixiodendronpachyclados, PNG.

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Socio- Economic Factors Influencing the Probability of Market Participation among the Cattle Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Abstract The study examined Socio- economic factors influencing the probability of market participation among the cattle farmers in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was employed to sample the respondents. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 400 respondents in the study area. Descriptive statistic was used to analysed the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents and logit regression analysis was employed to estimate the determinants market participation among the market participants. The result of the findings shows that cattle market participants were averagely aged 43 years, they are predominantly male (95.04%), (83.48%) were married, while (77.96%), (57.02%) had formal education and are full-time cattle farmers respectively. the result of logit regression analysis indicates that five variables (gender, education, distance to market, prior market information and seasonality) were significantly found to influence the farmers’ decision to participate in the market. The marginal effects were used to interpret the results. Recommendations were made such as to encourage more formal education among the farmers, the more the participant is educated, the better the chance of participation in the cattle market and also to encourage female and those that are unmarried to participate in cattle marketing activities. Provision of reliable market information through mass media or extension services is paramount important in improving market participation and to provide adequate pasture land and water supply so as to curb the problems of exposure to avarice of weather, creates more additional sales point at farming communities is paramount important in the intensity of cattle market participation.

Keywords cattle, factors, farmers, market and participation.

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Acclimatization of KFeFRIM01: A Superior Clone of Labisia pumila var. alata

Abstract Labisia pumila or commonly known as kacip fatimah is one of the popular medicinal plant in Malaysia. The constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anti cancer, antioxidant, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties. The growth and production of L. pumila is greatly influenced by the environmental condition such as shade, humidity and growing media. In this study, the survivality of L. pumila var. alata (KFeFRIM01) plantlets derived from tissue culture technique using temporary immersion system were analyzed during pre and post acclimatization process. The plantlets were pre acclimatize in different potting media namely 100% sand and 100% jiffy and grown in plastic growth chamber with different percentage of shade (0%, 50% and 70%). After a month, the plants were transferred to the nursery for post acclimatization. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the survivality of plants placed under different percentage of shade (70% and 50%), suitable growing media and watering requirement per day. The growth of the plants such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf length and leaf width were recorded during the acclimatization process. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to evaluate the survivality and growth of this plant during the acclimatization process. KFeFRIM01 was found to grow better in 0% shade compared to 50% shade and 70% shade. However, there were no significant difference recorded in the usage of two potting medium (100% sand and 100% jiffy) on the growth of KFeFRIM01 during pre acclimatization process. While in post acclimatization, KFeFRIM01 placed under 50% shade produce better growth in term of leaves number (8.44a ± 0.20), leaf length (6.13a ± 0.14) and leaf width (3.17a ± 0.06) compared to 70% shade. KFeFRIM01 plants planted in treatment 1-top soil: leaf compost: sand (2:3:1) gave the highest growth performance in all parameter measured. Whereas, KFeFRIM01 plants that watered twice per day (9AM & 4PM) have greater plant height (8.83a ± 0.34) and leaves number (7.53a ± 0.39) compared to plants watered once per day. The findings from this study are essential for mass production of L. pumila using tissue culture technology in future as a successful protocol for acclimatization of this plants obtained.

Keywords adaptation, environmental condition, plant growth, survivality, clonal propagation.

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Hiperparasitism on mycotoxigenic fungus Aspergillusochraceus G. Wilh. By Cladosporiumcladosporioides (Fresen) de Vries

Abstract Biocontrol agents (BCAs) for the control of fungal diseases and pests has been the focus in the development of, thus, the agrochemical industry has refocused priorities on integrated control to include the use of BCAs in research and programmes for disease and pest control. The mechanism of action has often included direct antagonism between the BCA and fungal pathogen, competitive exclusion of the pathogen by niche occupation, production of secondary metabolites, hyperparasitism, and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It is considered as a characteristic of antagonist, to present more than one mechanism, because in this way, their chances of success are increased. The present study, objectived to evaluate, in vitro, competition between the fungus considered a bioprotective agent of the coffee quality Cladosporiumcladosporioides (Fresen) de Vries and the potentially toxigenic fungus Aspergillus ochraceus G. Wilh. Competition between isolates of C. cladosporioides and A. ochraceus was evaluated in vitro conditions by adding conidia aliquotas in Petri dishes containing PDA (potato, dextrose, ágar) culture medium.The antagonist relationship between isolates was observed in Olympus SZX7TR-ILA trinocular stereoscopic microscope coupled to a camera and in scanning electron microscopy ZEISS®. The fungus C. cladosporioides (Fresen) de Vries, showed its antagonism on potencialmycotoxigenic fungus A. ochraceus by of antibiosis and hyperparasitism mechanisms.

Keywords— Biocontrol, sustainability, food safe.

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Bacterial indicators and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli in groundwater

Abstract The aim of this research was to investigate the groundwater quality in El Barreal basin (Córdoba, Argentina), through bacteriological analysis and antibiotic resistance of fecal bacteria indicators and their relationship with geochemical and land uses characteristics. Groundwater samples were collected in 36 wells and the following parameters were determined: major chemical components, heterotrophic plate counts, total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibiotic resistance of E. coli was analyzed using standard methods. The chemical and bacteriological analysis showed that more than 80 % of samples were unfit for human consumption. Bacteriological contamination was significant in 36 % of samples. The multivariate analysis between bacterial and geochemical variables explained local contamination conditions, evidenced by the arrival of bacteria and some typical indicators (NO3-, Cl- y HCO3-) to groundwater. No significant correlation between NO3- and bacterial counts was observed, which let us to interpret that part of NO3- contents can be supplied by inorganic fertilizers. Total and fecal coliforms were linked to a local increase of Cl- and HCO3- and a decrease of pH and dissolved oxygen, indicating the arrival and degradation of organic matter into groundwater. The resistance pattern of total E. coli isolates (n=12) showed that the highest percentages were observed for antibiotics of animal use (ampicillin, tetracycline and cephalothin). The analysis of results revealed the impact of land uses demonstrating that livestock activities are the main punctual contaminant sources in this sedimentary aquifer.

Keywords antibiotics, bacterial contamination, hydrogeochemistry, land uses.

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Change of Peptides and Free -Amino Acids Contents during Nanjing Dry-Cured Duck Processing

Abstract In order to explore the relationship between the change of peptides and free-amino acid (FAA) and its unique flavour, Dry-cured duck samples of different processing phases were used to study the change of free-amino acid by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in this paper, meanwhile the trichloroacetic acid precipitation method for modeling use to establish the quantitative predicated peptides. The changes of small peptides and free amino acids in the process were studied. The results showed that the level and amount of proteolysis increased with the processing time at traditional technology, meanwhile the amount of peptides were positively correlated with FAA contents (R2=0.86).

Keywords dry-cured duck, Free-­amino acids, proteolysis, Peptides.

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Short Term Effects of Dietary Boron on Mineral Status in Dairy Cows*

Abstract Aim of this study was to obtain knowledge on boron supplemented diet to mineral status of body fluids and feces in short term nutrition of dairy cattle. A total of 24 healthy Holstein dairy cows were used. The animals were fed with standard ration, and boron at three different doses was added to experimental’ diets as boron compound: borax, for 10 days. Boron and other macro and trace minerals were determined in serum, milk, urine and feces samples taken on 0 and 11st days. In this study, there were no overt signs of toxicosis, and a pivotal knowledge was obtained in dairy cattle fed with boron supplemented diet on boron absorption, excretion, and its interaction with other minerals. Boron could not completely absorb from gastrointestinal tract. Urine was the most important excretion way of boron. More less boron was also eliminated by milk. Boron levels in body fluids (serum and milk, p<0.000) were increasingly changed based on the dose. Boron, among minerals, provided a striking increase for Ca (p<0.003) and Mg (p<0.028) levels in serum by increasing absorption of these minerals. This topic is worth evaluating as an alternative approach in the prevention of hypocalcemia in transition cows.

Keywords Boron, Macro minerals, Micro minerals, Cattle.

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Effect of Temperature on Physical Properties of CNSL based Termiticides

Abstract Cashew nut shell liquid based termiticides using neemseed oil, karanjseed oil and bhilawan shell liquid, were developed and the effect of 30, 60, 90 and 120 0C temperatures on viscosity, refractive index, specific gravity and colour was studied. It was observed that viscosity and refractive index of termiticides decreased with heating temperature from 30 to 120 0C, specific gravity found decreased with increase in temperature from 30, 60 and 900C. Colour of Neemseed oil became bright yellow and of Cashew nut shell liquid, Karanjseed oil and Bhilawan shell liquid became darker when heated at temperature from 30 to 120 0C. CNSL based termiticides were oil based therefore the properties of oils were reflected in the termiticide formulations with respect to the temperature.

Keywords Cashew nut shell, Termiticides , neemseed oil, karanjseed oil, bhilawan shell liquid.

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Analysis of the Avian Biodiversity in Qingliang Mountain Area in spring

Abstract The Qingliang mountain area located in the downtown of Nanjing, there were plenty of botany species in Qingliang Mountain Area, such as forest, bamboos and grasslands, the environment was good habitat to avians. In this paper, avian resource of Qingliang mountain area was studied, 11 species was watched which belonging to 2 Orders and 7 Families. 2 summer breeding birds and 9 resident birds were recorded, 4 species were oriental realm birds, 2 species were palaearctic realm birds. The Shannon-Wiener Index was 1.6869, The Pielou Index was 0.3055, and The G-F Index was 0.2261. The feeding condition and safety condition affects the biodiversity of avian of Qingliang mountain area.

Keywords Avian Biodiversity Qingliang Mountain.

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Incidence and Level of Mistletoe Infestation in Tree Species at Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources’ Sebele Content Farm Campus, Botswana

Abstract A survey was conducted at Botswana University of Agriculture and natural Resources at Sebele content farm to determine the intensity and level of mistletoe infestation in tree species. The intensity and the total number of trees per tree species infected by the parasitic weed were determined. Acacia eriobola, Acacia mellifera, Terminalia sericea, Ziziphus mucronata, Schinus molle, Acacia tortilis, Acacia erubesens and Acacia flekii hosted the highest number of mistletoe. Results revealed significant variation in level of mistletoe infestation between tree species. A 100% infestation was recorded in some tree species such as Acacia eriobola and Ziziphus mucronata. Severely infested indigenous tree species were dying, whereas most of the exotic tree species were either not infested or have very little number of mistletoe on them. The variation observed could be due to the fact that indigenous species the frequently visited by dispensers looking for food and shelter than exotic species. In addition, there is a possibility that the mistletoe species co-evolved with the indigenous tree species and the vector may be well established on the host tree species than on exotic species.

Keywords Avian-dispersers, Botswana, Infestation, Mistletoe, Tree species.

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Effect of basidiomycete fungi on the discoloration and phytotoxicity of synthetic dye and textile effluent

Abstract The elimination of toxic wastes from industrial activities, mainly the textile industry, has induced the researchers to seek new techniques that reduce or eliminate the toxicity of these effluents. The textile effluent has a high chemical demand of oxygen and strong coloration, requiring an especific treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluated the decolorizationRemazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and textile effluent using pre-selected cultures of basidiomycete fungi: Lentinula edodes, Pleurotusostreatus and Pleutotuspulmorarius, and phytotoxicity of the dye and effluent before and after treatment with fungi. The decolorization test was realized in a liquid medium and the absorbance determined in spectrophotometer. For the dye was used to two pH values (5.0 and 9.0) and concentration (0.1 gL-1 and 0.5 gL-1). Lactuca sativa L. seeds were exposed to dye samples and textile effluents and the parameters evaluated were the germination rate and root lenght. The fungus Pleurotuspulmonarius was the one with the best result on the decolorization of dye RBBR on the both values: pH and concentration. As the textile effluent there was no significant difference among the treatments. In some treatments with the dye germination rate decreased indicating toxicity after decolorization. However there was an increase in root growth in the presence of the dye treated with P.pulmonarius.

Keywords Pleurotuspulmonarius; Remazol Brilliant Blue R.; Decolorization; Toxicity.

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Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) from anaerobic digestate and their effect on common wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedling growth

Abstract The use of anaerobic digestate as fertilizer is considered beneficial since it provides plant nutrients and organic matter to soils. However, there is limited information about plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) in digestate. In this study, we isolated Bacillus and Pseudomonas from two types of anaerobic digestates, and selected three different plant growth promoting traits and antifungal activity to screen 200 bacteria isolated from each digestate. Then 6 isolates based on plant growth promoting traits were selected and inoculated with common wheat seeds to evaluate their plant growth promoting activity. Cultivable population of Bacillus and Pseudomonas were 2.20 × 106 and 6.98 × 104 CFU g-1 dry matter in mesophilic digestate, while were 6.86 × 105 and 5.65 × 104 CFU g-1 dry matter in thermophilic digestate. Twenty-five bacterial isolates from mesophilic digestate and 12 bacterial isolates from thermophilic digestate showed positive plant growth promoting traits or antifungal activity. In plant growth promoting assay, all isolates significantly promoted growth of wheat seedlings (p < 0.05). Seedlings stem length was increased from 28.5% to 38.6% by bacteria inoculation. In addition, bacteria inoculation increased seedlings stem weight from 113.3% to 214.2% and root weight from 108.6% to 207.2% as compared to un-inoculated control. The results showed that anaerobic digestate was a potential source for isolation of PGPB, and PGPB in digestate would be beneficial for plant growth with fertilizer application.

Keywords Anaerobic digestate, Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Common wheat (Triticum aestivum).

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Interspecific Interaction Between Phytoseiulus macropilis and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Preying on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Rosebush Growing in Greenhouse

Abstract Greenhouses provide favorable conditions to grow roses (Rosa spp.) but also for the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Although chemical control continues to be used against this pest, consumer demand has encouraged research on less aggressive agricultural practices and biological control is now a viable option. The objective of this study was to investigate biological control of the two-spotted mite, in rosebush growing in greenhouse, by Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), individually or in combination. Potted rosebushes (Rosa alba L., Rosaceae) were used in five treatments: 1 - control group, rosebushes only with T. urticae; 2 - rosebushes with T. urticae and N. californicus; 3 - rosebushes with T. urticae and P. macropilis; 4 - rosebushes with T. urticae, N. californicus, and, after 4 weeks, P. macropilis and 5 - rosebushes with T. urticae, N. californicus, and P. macropilis. Biological control was evaluated by counting live mites. The results showed that both predatory mites were efficient in the control of the two-spotted mite on rosebushes cultivated in the greenhouse, either alone or in combination, but, when only P. macropilis was released, this predaceous mite was more efficient than N. californicus, at either low or high prey density, but the N. californicus can survive for longer in the absence of prey or in its low presence, for being a generalist predatory mite.

Keywords Biological control, Rosa spp., Two-spotted spider mite, Protected crop, Agricultural acarology.

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Evaluation of biological and physicochemical risk of hospital liquid waste in Morocco

Abstract Hospitals could be the source of pollution that must be taken into account in a general approach to health and environmental risk assessment. This study is part of the characterization of hospital liquid waste in a region in Morocco, whose objective is to assess their physicochemical, bacteriological and toxicological quality.

The physicochemical analyzes carried out on 144 samples taken during one year showed a great fluctuation of some parameters such as: BOD5, COD, MES, PH, T°, ​​as well as an important bacteriological load: Total coliforms, E coli, faecal Streptococci, pathogenic germs such as: Salmonella, Staphylococcus, 20% multi-resistant, virulent germs of emerging nature such as: Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and trace metal elements such as: mercury and copper that exceed the threshold of acceptability. At the end of this study, it turned out that hospital effluents are heavily loaded with pollutants. We therefore hope, in the light of the results provided by this study, to have generated a real awareness of the competent authorities on strengthening and improving the treatment of hospital liquid effluents such as developed countries, as the impact of these effluents on human and environmental health is harmful and can spread emerging diseases.

Keywords Wastewater, Liquid effluent, physicochemical pollution, bacteriological, trace elements.

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Ectopic Expression of Hawthorn SND1 Gene in Tobacco

Abstract NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) and have been shown to function in plant development processes and abiotic and/or biotic stress responses. SECONDARY WALL-ASSOCIATED NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN1 (SND1) is one type of NAC TFs, which is a key regulator in the regulation network for secondary wall synthesis. In this study, the SND1 gene, named CpSND1 because it has a conservative N-terminal DNA-binding domain with AtSND1, was isolated from hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida). The full-length CDS of this gene was 1,203 bp, encoding 400 amino acids. The CpSND1 gene was transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) by the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and 20 transgenic lines were obtained. Tobacco plants overexpressing CpSND1 had typical phenotypes, including inhibited growth, upward-curling leaves. Our results provided functional information of CpSND1 for future genetic engineering.

Keywords hawthorn, transcription factor, SND1, ectopic expression.

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Study on Physicochemical Properties and Microstructure of Taro Starch in Taizhou

Abstract In order to compare the physical and chemical properties of taro in Taizhou area, taro starch was extracted through the method of spray drying , the blue values, solubility, swelling force, amino acid of amylose and amylopectin and taro starch granules were studied. The results showed that the blue values of amylose were1.16, 0.97, 1.1 in Taixing, jingjiang and xinghua taro respectively, the blue values of amylopectin were 0.19, 0.14, 0.13 in Taixing, jingjiang and xinghua taro respectively. In the comparison of solubility, taixing xianghe taro had a wide distribution, the following sequence was observed: jingjiang xiangsha taro >xinghua longxiang taro. Analyses of amino acids were 3.03mg/100g in taixing xianghe taro starch which was more than the other two taros. The nutritional assessment of amino acids suggested that the taixing xianghe and xinghua longxiang taro contained delicious amino acids which of EAA were 38% and 44% respectively. Taixing xianghe taro contained the highest content of phosphorus and potassium, which were 1419 mg/kg and 8084 mg/kg separately. Granule morphology showed that starch particles of taixing xianghe taro were smaller than those of taros and the surface was smooth, uniformly. Particle shape was spherical. Xinghua longxiang taro particles with irregular diamond, Jingjiang xiangsha taro starch particles was irregular sphere, and spherical surface was uneven. Taizhou taro was delicate, delicious, which of the taixing xianghe taro was with better quality on the domestic market.

Keywords taro, extraction of starch, quality, analysis.

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The effects of explant rotation, medium types, JA and GA3 additions on in vitro microtuber production from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Abstract This study investigates the effects on the in vitro microtuber formations of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Marfona species, effected by the direction of planting the explants (horizontal or vertical), the type of medium (solid or two-phase), adding Jasmonic acid (JA) (0.0, 10 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 0.2 mg/L) and Gibberellic acid (GA3) (0.0 and 0.2 mg/L). The cultures were incubated in a climate chamber at 22-25 oC, and were subjected to a light intensity of 145 µmol m-2 s-1 for 8 hours in light and 16 hours in dark photoperiods (short day) for 4-6 weeks. Microtuber production was inhibited when GA3 was added. The maximum number of microtubers was observed when the explants were planted vertically and were grown in two-phase medium which did not contain GA3 and had 10 ng/L JA present. It was determined that two-phase medium with 0.2 mg/L JA but without GA3 was the most favourable medium for tuber growth (for both height and width). The best microtuber formation on single node explants were observed to occur in the short day photoperiod (8 hours light/16 hours dark) in a two-phase medium that contained 0.2 mg/L JA without the addition of GA3. The results shows that the effect caused by JA works antagonistically with that of GA3 thus causing the resulting microtuber formation observed.

Keywords Potato, In vitro Microtuberization, Two-Phase Medium, Jasmonic Acid, GA3.

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Thursday, 9 November 2017

Agriculture Journal- October issue 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-10, October 2017

Detection of Parapoxvirus in goats during contagious ecthyma outbreak in Ceará State, Brazil by transmission electron microscopy techniques

Abstract Contagious ecthyma or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a viral skin disease that occurs in sheep, goats and wild ruminants and is characterized by the formation of papules, nodules or vesicles that progress into thick crusts or heavy scabs on the lips, gingiva and tongue, caused by a member of the Parapoxvirus genus. Humans are occasionally affected constituting important zoonosis. The disease not only has an economic impact on farmers worldwide but also has a considerable negative effect on animal welfare. In this study, a contagious ecthyma outbreak which occurred in one flock with 90 goats located in the Ceará State, Brazil, was described. Twenty-two goats older than 6 months were affected. The animals presented crusted lesions on the buccal region, tongue, udder and teats, which began with swelling in the mouth area. Dried crusts and serum collected were processed for transmission electron microscopy utilizing, negative staining (rapid preparation), Immunocytochemistry (immunolabelling with colloidal gold particles) and resin embedding techniques. At the Philips EM 208 transmission electron microscopy all the samples were analyzed by negative staining technique and a great number of parapoxvirus particles ovoid or cylindrical, showing two morphological forms, a mulberry (M) form with a distinctive crisscross filament pattern derived from the superimposition of upper and lower virion surfaces and a capsular (C) form caused by stain penetration and distention of the virion core, measuring 300 x 180 nm was observed. Antigen antibody reaction was increased by the colloidal gold particles. In the ultrathin sections of crusts, we verified the presence of three types of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, type A or Bollinger inclusion bodies, outlined by membrane, presented in it is interior, oval, mature or complete viral particles, measuring on the average, 225nm x 130 nm, showing an inner dumbell-shaped core, two lateral bodies and an external envelope, or cigar shaped core. In the type B electron dense inclusions bodies, were visualized parapoxvirus particles budding of dense and amorphous material. Fibrillar intracytoplasmic inclusions were also found located between the virions, consisting of groups of fibrils, arranged in groups or concentrically in the middle of the granular material. Intracytoplasmic vesicles outlined by membranes, measuring 560 x 420 nm, containing granular material in its interior were also observed. The nuclei showed an aspect deformed.

Keywords Parapoxvirus, Goats, Transmission electron microscopy.

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Influence of Plant Density and Mulching on Growth and Yield of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. romana L.)

Abstract The aim of the paper was to present the influence of plant density and different types of organic mulch on growth and yield of Romain lettuce. The field experiment was carried out in 2014 in the experimental field of University of Forestry – Sofia, with Romaine lettuce cv. Yellow beauty. The seedlings were planted at a distance of 30 x 30 cm and two different schemes were tested: parallel planting to form a 4-row bed and a chess planting to form a 7-row bed. For the purpose of the study were used different organic mulches, which were waste products from organic agriculture: barley straw (BS), well-rotted horse manure (HM), walnut wood sawdust (WS) and grass windrow (GW) and non-mulched control plots (NMC). The mulching materials were spread manually in a 5-6 cm thick layer, after strengthen the seedlings of Romain lettuce. On the 60th day after planting was the beginning of harvesting. It was found out that the seven-row bed and mulching influenced growth and yield of Romain lettuce. Mulching with HM has a significant effect on growth and yield. In the cultivation of lettuce in combination with horse manure mulch and seven-row bed, the yield increased by 18% compared to the non-mulched control in the same planting scheme and was 2.3 times higher than the non-mulched control in a four-row bed. A significant effect on the mulched variants was established.

Keywords grass windrow mulch, horse manure mulch, lettuce, seven-row bed, yield.

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Solar Irradiance Forecasting Using Intelligent Technology

AbstractBecause solar power is susceptible to clouds and substances in the air, the solar photovoltaic cannot produce stable power output. Solar irradiance is a measurement of the power output of photovoltaic module. Therefore, this paper uses some different combination inputs of the neural network to develop the solar irradiance forecasting with 24 hours ahead. Their forecasting performances are evaluated and some comparison results in Taichung solar farm are given.

KeywordsNeural network, Solar Irradiance, Solar Power Systems.

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The Role of Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes in the Development of Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichumtruncatum in the Chilli

Abstract The ability of Colletotrichumtruncatum CP2 in producing pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzymes was evaluated by shake flask fermentations. The results of enzymatic activity experiment indicated that PG was the first cell wall-degrading enzymes detected and the activities obtained were higher (0.24±0.10 U/mL) than other enzymes, which appeared later and in lower amount. After the cell wall was degraded by the action of PG, further degradation of the cell wall was affected by pectin methylesterases, pectin lyase, pectate lyase and cellulases. The disparity in enzymatic activity at different intervals may suggest their specific role for pathogenesis at proper timings.

Keywords Chilli anthracnose; Colletotrichumtruncatum, cell wall-degrading enzymes, pectinolytic, cellulolytic.

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Productivity Assessment of Drought Tolerant Rice Cultivars under Different Crop Management Practices in Central Terai of Nepal

Abstract Proper selections of resource conservation technologies and drought tolerant cultivars are being potential strategies determining productivity of rice in drought prone areas. Thus, a field experiment was accomplished in central-terai of Nepal during 2014 to assess the productivity of drought tolerant rice cultivars under different crop management practices. The experiment was carried out in strip-plot design with three replications consisting four drought tolerant rice cultivars and three crop management practices. The analyzed data revealed that SRI (System of Rice Intensification) produced significantly higher grain yield (5.28 t ha-1) than other management practices. The straw yield of SRI (5.12 t ha-1) was also significantly higher than other management practices. The cultivars had no influence on grain yield, but the straw yield was significantly influenced by cultivars, with the highest straw yield in Sukkha-3 (5.21 t ha-1). Thus, SRI management practice can be adopted as adaptation approach for obtaining higher productivity in central terai and similar agro-climatic regions of Nepal.

Keywords Crop management practices, Productivity, Rice, SRI.

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Biological properties of African swine fever virus Odintsovo 02/14 isolate and its genome analysis

Abstract We performed analysis of the biological properties of African swine fever virus (ASF) isolate Odintsovo 02/14. Domestic pigs were inoculated with 50 (low) or 5000 (high) hemadsorbing doses (HAD) of the virus via intranasal (IN) or intramuscular (IM) routes, to investigate the pathogenesis of ASF virus Odintsovo 02/14 isolate. Our results indicated that filtered 10% spleen suspension of ASFV isolate Odintsovo 02/14 induced an acute disease in pigs, resulting in 100% mortality rate. For cultural viral suspension (3rd passage), produced in a PBM cells mortality rate was 85.7%.

We also present an analysis of the complete genome of African swine fever virus (ASF) Odintsovo 02/14 isolate. It is 189 333 nucleotide long and contains more than 160 open reading frames (ORFs). Complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Odintsovo 02/14 isolate was obtained using pyrosequencing method and used to determine differences between the nucleotide sequences in the genomes of Odintsovo 02/14 and Georgia 01/2007. The genome of ASF virus Odintsovo 02/14 contains substitutions, insertions and deletions in genes encoding structural, membrane, and regulatory proteins, DNA reparation enzymes, host immune response evasion proteins, and MGF genes.

The intergenic region I73R/I329L of Odintsovo 02/14 isolate contains 10-nucleotide long tandem repeat sequence, missing in Georgia 01/2007.

Keywords African swine fever (ASF), experimental challenge, complete genome sequencing, intergenic region, tandem repeats.

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Wood density variation of different provenance for exotic loblolly pine in China

Abstract Variation patterns and range of juvenile wood basic density (BD) of 30 loblolly pine provenances in Zhejiang Province of China were reported in this paper. There were four radial variation patterns of BD within 310 10-year-old trees of 30 provenances, but the main pattern was a steadily increasing trend from pith to bark. The early-late correlation coefficient of BD for loblolly pine strengthens with trees age and the value of BD in 5 years old trees can be used for predict that in 10 years old trees. The BD mean change of 30 provenances is similar to normal distribution and the BD varies from 0.343 to 0.412 g/cm3. The BD mean of the contrast provenance is 0.369 g/cm3 and in medial level. There is an obvious difference in BD among 30 provenances. Further analyses show that the difference among trees within a provenance is greater than that among provenances and the environment has significant effects on its BD. The broad heritability of BD is 0.72. The individual tree selection within a provenance was much better than that among different provenance.

The BD mean of 30 provenances is related positively to the provenance latitude, Longitude of provenance is related negatively to wood density in East Coast and positive to wood density in South Coast and Gulf. There is a tendency for BD of loblolly pine provenance to be lower from west to east and from north to south. This variation in plantation in a common environment turned out contrary to that of natural at different environment. The BD of loblolly pine provenances introduced from high latitude is greater than that from low latitude, but tree growth properties from low latitude were much faster than those from high latitude.

The BD mean value of 310 trees at the same growth stage (the same age) was negatively related to the diameter at breast height and volume of these trees. Wood density was significant correlated negatively with tracheid width and tracheid diameter at different growth stage of loblolly pine. DBH was significant positively correlated with tracheid width, tracheid diameter and negatively distinct related to ratio of tracheid double wall thickness to tracheid diameter. That DBH was related positively to ratio of tracheid diameter to tracheid width and negatively to tracheid wall thickness showed that the tracheid wall thickness of fast trees or fast provenances did not increase in proportion as tracheid width and tracheid diameter increased. This would lead to the decrease in wood basic density. Better provenance selection for pulpwood and building lumber should be determined from both tree growth and wood properties.

The abstract should summarize the content of the paper. Try to keep the abstract below 250 words. Do not make references nor display equations in the abstract. The journal will be printed from the same-sized copy prepared by you. Your manuscript should be printed on A4 paper (21.0 cm x 29.7 cm). It is imperative that the margins and style described below be adhered to carefully. This will enable us to keep uniformity in the final printed copies of the Journal. Please keep in mind that the manuscript you prepare will be photographed and printed as it is received. Readability of copy is of paramount importance.

Keywords loblolly pine, wood density, variation, wood anatomy, provenance trial and correlation analyses.

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Effects of Different Media on Micropropagation and Rooting of Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) in In Vitro Conditions

AbstractMyrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is a small tree shrub of the family Myrtace, grown naturally of the Mediterranean area. Myrtle is very important as an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic agent. Turkey has great genetic resources for myrtle. Propagation of myrtle genotypes is significant issue. Plant tissue culture techniques offer fast and reliable micropropagation for many plant species. Different media content could be used for micropropagation in in vitro condition. The aim of the present study is to determinate of effects of different media on micropropagation and rooting in myrtle. For this purpose, Murashige and Skoog (MS), Rugini Olive Medium (OM) and Woody Plant Medium (WPM) media were used for micropropagation and rooting experiments. All media were supplemented with 1 mg l-1 BA for micropropagation, 1 mg l-1 IBA for rooting. The rate of micropropagation and plant length, rooting rate, numbers of root and root length were determined. Rooted with well-developed shoots transferred to plastic pots containing autoclaved peat and perlite (1:1, v/v). The potted plants were placed in a greenhouse. Acclimatized plants were compared after eight weeks. Means were separated by analysis of variance and the LSD test was performed to examine significant differences. Based on the result, the best medium was detected WPM on micropropagation rate (6.75 per plant), and then MS (4.20 per plant), OM (3.70 per plant). According to rooting data the highest rooting rate was calculated in WPM with 100%, rooting rate in OM and MS media was detected 70% and 50%, respectively.

Key WordsIn vitro, plant tissue culture, MS, BA, IBA.

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Saturday, 14 October 2017

Agriculture Journal- September issue 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-9, September 2017

Assessment of Rural Energy sources and Energy Consumption pattern in West Shewa and East WellegaZones, OromiaRegional National state, Ethiopia

Abstract— The study was conducted in West shewa and East wollega zones; Oromia Regional State with objective of the study is to identify the major rural source of energy consumption in the study area and to identify constraint and potential of energy use in the study area. About 141Male and 39 Female households were interviewed by structured questionnaire and data were analyzed by descriptive statistics under SPSS software. The characteristic of rural Energy source utilization , the majority of respondent uses firewood about 91.1% and about 16.9% the respondent uses agricultural residue for the purpose of baking Enjera , Firewood is the first widely used energy source, about 57.2% of the respondent uses Firewood and about 22.8% of the respondent uses charcoal for the purpose of heating mostly. About 55% the respondents uses kerosene and the respondent’s uses small size solar only about 20% for purpose of lighting. Electricity, battery cell, biogas was the lowest level energy sources of study area. In study area even if some rural HHs with access to electric service , they did not use for the purpose of Enjera baking as well as heating , only use for the purpose of lighting in study area. The main reasons for preference of biomass energy consumption in the study area is ease of access, cultural preference, cheap pricesandthe last reasons for choice biomass energy consumption is convenience when they used and no alternative source. Small HHs uses the available alternative energy technology like biogas, modern charcoal stove (leqach), Mirt stove, small size solar energy. Firewood and Agricultural residue were the potential energy sources in study area and unlike Agricultural research, lack of Research on Rural energy sources, lack of effective rural energy technology, socio-economic problem to accept available rural energy sources, lack of information where and how alternatives rural energy technology were identified as constraints of rural energy sources in study area. To fill these knowledge gap AERC, should be planned to introduce new Rural Energy sources and Woreda water, mine and energy office should disseminate the available alternative technologies for ruralhouseholds.

Keywords— Agricultural residue, Alternative Energy source, Biomass, Firewood, Rural Energy source.

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Response of Rice Genotypes to Arsenic Contaminated Field Condition during Kharif and Boro Season

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate rice germplasm for their arsenic content in different plant parts and phosphorus content in grains. Results showed that in the rice plant highest arsenic was accumulated in the roots and the lowest in the grain. The arsenic accumulation follows the order of root>shoot> leaf> grain. The results also revealed that IRRI dhan was quite tolerant to arsenic and Satabdi 1 was susceptible to arsenic accumulation during kharif season, whereas during boro season IET-4094 accumulated more arsenic in grain and IR-50 accumulated less arsenic in grain. Results also showed that kharif rice genotypes bore strong positive association between total phosphorus percent with arsenic content in grain, whereas strong negative association was found in boro season rice genotypes.

Keywords Arsenic, Rice (oryza sativa L.), phosphorus, West bengal.

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Health Issues and Mental Distress in French Active Farmers: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

Abstract

Purpose: Despite a particularly high suicide-related death rate observed in French farmers, data regarding this population’s perception of health and their potential difficulties in accessing health care remains scarce.

Methods: We conducted a quantitative study involving 161 randomly selected farmers in three rural localities. Precarious conditions were assessed based on farmers’ EPICES scores, their quality of life using the SF12 score, and their psychological distress by means of the GHQ-12. At the same time, a qualitative study was performed consisting in 16 in-depth interviews.

Findings: In total, 112 farmers (70% of persons contacted), most of them working as breeders for the meat-processing industry, participated in the study. Amongst them, 14.3% had forgone doctor consultation within the last 12 months, and 19.6% had abstained from consulting a dentist. They expressed trust in their general practitioners but frequently resorted to alternative medicine or marginal practitioners when they considered their disease to be benign. The general physical health status measured using the SF12 was good in 84.5% of cases. However, 29.7% of respondents experienced psychological distress that seemed to originate primarily from the conflicting rhythms of agricultural timescales (seasonal calendar; local weather conditions; social rhythms, including administrative work; community rhythms). Factor analysis of mixed data showed that single farmers exhibiting social deprivation, who had inherited their farm, tended to be affected by psychological distress.

Conclusion: The consideration of mental distress in this identified population proves to be challenging issues that may help prevent suicide in farmers.

Key words: work stress, suicide, anthropology, access to health care.

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LGBTQ: The Molecular Mechanism and its Role in Elucidating Proportional for a Better Management

Abstract

Background: LGBTQ is prone high prevalence and has economic, social business grow in wet and warm countries. It becomes political issue Worldwide (Time magazine, June 12, 2017, page 7) in immigration and also president election campaign in industrial countries in the last decades.

Problem: Current effort from day care psychosocial early predictive and training, better therapy, law in sentence, marriage and immigration/ refugee has become topic of controversies feel not ended. From psychiatry social, transgender operation and hormonal have been the day fact, but not one make it clear from the molecular aspect as the cause, and what to do in prevention, promotion for keeping away from methylation and demethylation affect. This study digs the reference about CGG repeat in large to small DNMT off.

Objective: CGG repeat as the molecular aspect of methylation and demethylation beyond health science should build and known by decision and policy maker. Controversial are broad, LGBT problem are hug, increasing but attorney denies that gay people exist in their region (Times magazine, June 12, 2017, page 7).

Method: Systematic Review with Bayesian analysis and mathematical model.

Result: flowchart and table of 13 ref from CGG repeat in DNA methylation analysis, 2 Meta-analysis. Small/ grey zone CGG repeat associated with neuropsychiatric risk.

Discussion: Brain and behavior DNMT off functional.

Comparison: Law, neuropsychiatric/early social-education vs. ensure no to methylation and demethylation in wet and warm area.

Outcome: Winning the combat of LGBT prevalence.

Conclusion: Winning the combat of LGBT prevalence not with early psycho-social activity, but with molecular psycho forensic and that is through what cause small/ grey zone CGG repeat prevalence.

Keywordspsycho-social, psycho forensic, biophysics, grey zone. CGG repeat, brain and behavior of LGBT.

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Identification and Mapping of Prone to Landslide in the Sub District of Kintamani, Bali Province, Indonesia

Abstract This research was conducted in several locations of prone to landslides in the Sub District of Kintamani, Bangli Regency, Bali Province, Indonesia. Determining the research location is purposively, meaning intentionally determined by observing in the field to landslides during the rainy season 2016/2017. The purpose of research, namely: (1) identifying areas prone to landslides at several locations in the Sub District of Kintamani, Bangli Regency; (2) to mapping areas prone to landslides using geographical information systems (GIS), (3) to formulate the strategies to overcome landslides. The analytical method used is descriptive-qualitative, meaning that the results of field observations and interviews integrated and interpreted in a narrative-qualitative. Results of the analysis showed that the location is prone to landslides in the sub district of Kintamani are Villages of Selulung, Satra, Tanah Gambir, Tegallinggah, Pinggan, Songan, Kayu Selem, Blancan, Batur, Bubung Kelambu, Pura Tanah Mas, Mampeh, Yeh Mampeh, dan Penelokan, with total area of ​​144,36 ha. The cause of landslides are high rainfall, soil type regosol, geology, slope average above 15% and the use of land that is not paying more attention on land conservation. Further mapping of landslide-prone locations using Q-GIS and Google Earth. Strategies to overcome landslides is to avoid the cultivation of agriculture in areas prone to landslides, implement agroforestry systems, planting cover crops, making sewers or ditches, enforcing the rules of the spatial region and violators are given strict and severe sanctions.

Keywords Mapping, Landslides, Kintamani.

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Analyses of Community Attributes of Meiofauna Under A Pollution Regime in the Lower Bonny Estuary, Rivers State, Nigeria

Abstract— Meiofauna community attributes of the lower Bonny estuary was investigated under a pollution regime. This is germane because of the strategic importance of meiofauna in the food chain and the sustenance of any aquatic ecosystem. Five stations representing diverse land based activities such as refuse dump site, fuel depot, fishing-landing areas, residential housing and a station located up-stream (control) were chosen for investigation. The meiofauna samples were collected from sediments in three replicate spots per station per sampling months at low tide. Sediment samples were stirred through (63-212nm) meshes to separate meiofauna and organic debris. Meiofauna samples were processed by first washing Meiofauna through a sieve of fine mesh size made of silk material, in order to wash off formation and excess silt or mud. Meiofauna samples were sorted out and identified using standard keys. Result from field studies indicate that meiofauna population abundance and diversity varied slightly between stations and seasons. There was however, no established trend. Meiofauna were generally more abundant in the rainy season than in the dry season. In general, pollution indicator meiofaunal taxa were more in all stations except the control station; the increasing impact of pollutants in the river led to a rise in the relative abundance of r-strategist genera like Chromadora. We conclude that the application of meiofaunal indices can be a useful tool for assessing the environmental quality of estuarine ecosystems.

Keywords Community structure, Pollution, Meiofauna, Bonny Estuary.

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The utilities of Citrus tissue culture

Abstract Citrus is the third most important fruit crop in the world after apple and bananas, and the total area cultivated with the various Citrus cultivar covers over 7.2 million hectares, yielding total annual production of approximately 100 million metric tons of fruit. The genus Citrus possesses several undesirable characteristic including salt and cold sensitivity they are also susceptible to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Despit substantial genetic diversity and interspecific fertility, the genus Citrus includes some of the most difficult species to breeding. For example, most species are highly heterozygous and produce progeny that segregate widely for many characters when crosses are made. The juvenile periods are often very long, self- and cross-incompatibility and pollen and/or ovule sterility are relatively common, and the presence of adventitious somatic embryos in the nucellus of developing ovules of the most of Citrus greatly limits hybrid production. Genetic transformation is an alternative to overcome these difficulties. For successful transformation, regeneration of whole plants from the transformed cells is a prerequisite. On the other hand production of virus – free plants, development of new cultivars, and production of seedless fruit, production of flavonoid, micropropagation, germplasm conservation and cryopreservation are the other utilities of in vitro culture of Citrus.

Keywords Citrus, Improvement, Tissue culture.

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Environmental factors for transmission of Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in school age children in Zambia

Abstract We conducted a study to establish the environmental factors that favour the transmission of two Soil Transmitted helminthes, namely hookworm and ascariasis, in school age children in two districts, Luanshya and Nchelenge, of Zambia in July 2015. Soil samples were collected from selected sites in Nchelenge and Luanshya districts and analysed for chemical and physical properties. The climatic patterns for the two districts were also analysed. Nchelenge district lay at a lower altitude (934m) than Luanshya district (1218m). The average monthly temperatures were significantly higher for Nchelenge than Luanshya (P=0.004). Other climatic factors analysed were comparable between the two districts (P>0.05). Comparison of soil physical properties between the two districts demonstrated that Bulk density was significantly higher for Nchelenge district than Luanshya district (P=0.004), Solid was higher for Nchelenge than Luanshya (P=0.015), Moisture content was higher for Luanshya than Nchelenge (P=0.003), Clay content was higher for Luanshya than Nchelenge (P=0.005), Total Sand was higher for Nchelenge than Luanshya (P=0.024), while Silt content was comparable between the two districts (P>0.05). Comparison of the soil texture between the two districts demonstrated that Nchelenge significantly had more Sand soil than Luanshya while Luanshya had Loamy-sand soil than Nchelenge (P=0.005). Comparison of Soil chemical properties between the two districts revealed similarities in pH, Total Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Organic carbon, Organic matter, Total carbon, and Lead (P>0.05) while mineral contents were higher for Luanshya than Nchelenge for Magnesium (P=0.018), Manganese (P=0.003), and Copper (P=0.007).

Keywords children, climate, helminthes, minerals, soil.

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Processing and sensory properties of high-fibre bakery products

Abstract The present study was conducted to improve the nutritional composition of cakes and biscuits which are generally made with refined flour. Refined wheat flour was substituted with Germinated Sorghum Flour and Plantain Flour. Process parameters such as height, diameter, spread ratio and spread factor were recorded for biscuits. For cakes, process parameters such as batter pH, acidity, density, baking temperature and cake volume were assessed. Weight of biscuits increased from 8.05 g in control to 9.27 g in variation made with germinated sorghum and plantain. There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in spread ratio of biscuits with increased amount of germinated sorghum and plantain flours. The spread ratio reduced from 7.63 (control) to 6.68 indicating less spread of biscuits during baking. In conclusion, substitution of refined wheat flour with germinated sorghum and plantain provides dual benefits of improving nutritional quality of the baked products and also it improves process parameters which are essential for scale-up during commercial production of biscuits and cakes.

Keywords Bakery products, germinated sorghum flour, plantain, high fibre, cakes, biscuits.

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Prevalence of teat end hyperkeratosis in lactating dairy cattle and their association with animal variables

Abstract Short and long-term changes in teat condition mainly caused by machine milking may affect the udder health of lactating dairy cattle. The objective was to investigate the prevalence of teat end hyperkeratosis scores in lactating dairy cattle in Germany and to determine associations between animal variables and teat end hyperkeratosis. The study was conducted in 15 German high-yielding dairy herds. On dairy farms teat size, teat shape, teat end shape and changes in teat condition (edema, teat skin colour, teat end hyperkeratosis) were recorded. In total, 4,022 animals of the breed German Holstein were included into the present study. For both front and rear teats associations between teat end hyperkeratosis and lactation number, teat length, teat diameter and teat end shape were found. Further research is needed to reduce the prevalence of teat end hyperkeratosis in high-yielding dairy herds and to improve the teat condition.

Keywords Udder health, teat end hyperkeratosis, teat end shape.

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Study of Development of Rural Entrepreneurship in Modern Russia

Abstract The article discusses the trends and prospects of development of the three sectors of rural entrepreneurship: corporate, individual and family, formal and informal; analyze the transformation of household farms; an assessment of efficiency of development of small forms of agricultural production, it is concluded that the major agricultural organizations lost their dominant position.

Keywords agricultural production, farms, households, corporate sector, private sector.

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Thursday, 31 August 2017

Agriculture Journal- August issue 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-7, July 2017

Productivity and Quality of Hybrid Canola Oil and Seeding Time

Abstract Biofuels are the main alternative for changing the world's energy matrix, which is now centralized in fossil fuels. The characterization of alternative sources of biomass, mainly regionally, shapes database for decision making.For this purpose, a factorial experiment was carried out with three canola cultivars (Hyola 43, 61 and 571), seeded in four times (April 4th, April 16th, May 2nd and May 14th).As biomass characterization, grain yield, oil content and yield, specific mass, oxidative stability, acidity and lipid profile were determined. There was significant difference for the hybrids in the variables oil content, induction time and in the stearic, linoleic and linolenic contents. The highlight was the hybrid Hyola 43.There was significant difference for the periods in the grain yield, oil content, oil yield, and induction time and in the palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic contents. Considering values of dependent, quantitative and qualitative variables, the best seeding season of canola would be between the second fortnight of April and the first week of May.

Keywords Biodiesel, vegetable oils, fatty acid.

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Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units in patients of Chagas disease and Triatoma infestans after insecticide spraying in Chile

Abstract In this study, we evaluate mixed discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi present in 69 patients of Chagas disease and 92 Triatoma infestans collected under the entomological surveillance program after more than 20 years of intervention with insecticide spraying in Chile. Our aim is to identify T. cruzi DTUs still circulating in T. infestans and chronic patients to evaluate their impact on the environmental health in endemic areas of the country. Blood DNA or triatomine DNA was used as DNA template for PCR assays. For genotyping, different T. cruzi stocks were used to generate the DNA probes to determine four parasite DTUs or mixtures infecting each patient or vector by means of hybridization assays. We found different frequencies of T. cruzi DTUs in patients and in T. infestans. Tc I was the most frequent found in T. infestans, but was less frequent in humans. In contrast, in humans Tc V was most frequent but was less frequent in T. infestans. In conclusion, there were significant differences between the T. cruzi DTUs circulating in patients and vectors. We discussed these results in the context of what has being reported in Chile before the vector control, in neighboring countries, and the selection pressures existing for T. cruzi populations within the invertebrate and vertebrate hosts.

Keywords Chagas disease in Chile, Trypanosoma cruzi DTUs, Triatoma infestans, kinetoplast minicircles.

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Occupational Safety and Health Practices In Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisations, Western Kenya Region

Abstract The Kenya agricultural and livestock research organisation (KALRO) western region is divided into KALRO-Kakamega (non-ruminant) and KALRO-Kitale (food crops) mandated to innovate, improve technological activities that touch on the environment and the livelihood of people. Such practices should comply with occupational safety and health Act (OSHA, 2007) standards. The aim of the study was to assess safety awareness at KALRO-Western Kenya region during the months of April to June 2016. Structured questionnaires, checklist, photographs and observation tools were used for data collection and analyzed using statistical package (SPSS). Study shows that75% of the respondents in KALRO-Kakamega and 79% of the respondents in KALRO-Kitale (χ2=.187, df=1, p=.665) agreed that both institutes had safety and health policy. Respondents in KALRO-Kakamega (55%) and respondents in KALRO-Kitale (63%) (χ2=.813, df=1, p=.367) had access to such policies necessitating requirement for sensitization to access policy document. Respondents in KALRO-Kakamega(55%) and respondents in KALRO-Kitale (52%) (χ2=9.482, df=4, p=.050) indicated that only qualified service engineers maintained machines and equipment. The respondents in both KARLO institutions read labels before using the chemicals KARLO Kakamega 88.7% and KARLO-Kitale 84.2% (χ2=.511, df=1, p=.475).Compliance to Safe work procedure as per institution (KALRO-Kakamega 70%, KALRO-Kitale 63%) (χ2=.570, df=1, p=.450). From the research findings, there were no significant differences in predictor factors for safety awareness at both KALRO-Kakamega and KALRO-Kitale. Training of workers to identify, classify and quantify hazards should be enhanced at the two institutes in order to raise their safety awareness levels as per (OSHA, 2007) standards.

Keywords food crops research, health, KALRO, Non-ruminant research, safety.

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Meteorological Conditions: Influence on Yield, Sanitary Status and Grape Composition

Abstract The current study aimed to establish which meteorological conditions have the strongest impact on grapevine yield, sanitary status and berry composition, as well as checking their relative importance in relation to management practices and grapevine variety. Weather data was correlated to yield, sanitary status and grape composition of three varieties (Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot and Tannat) under two trellis systems (lyre and vertical shoot positioning), with or without yield control (pruning type and cluster thinning) over four seasons throughout the south of Uruguay. Principal component analysis showed that weather variables explained, respectively, 57.3%, 64.3% and 57.8% of the variance in yield, sanitary status and grape composition within the studied dataset. Hierarchical Clustering grouped years, confirming that the relevance of weather interannual variability was greater than that of genetics and management practices. Yield depended on bunch number, which was determined by rainfall and temperature. Water statuses during the first stage of the growing cycle are determinant for bunch rot infection, as well as thermal and hydric conditions that prevail during maturation. Grape compounds were positively correlated to thermal sum at the beginning of the growing cycle and negatively with high temperatures and water availability in maturation. Our results suggest that the favourable intervals of atmospheric conditions for yield and bunch rot are different from those for berry quality.

Keywords Berry quality, climate, genotype, viticultural practice, yield components.

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Effect of Copper Foliar Spray upon the Contents of Other Elements in Apple Leaves

Abstract Apple leaves of cultivars Topaz and Golden delicious, organically grown upon spindly shaped apple trees and grafted at 5 dwarfing rootstocks, were analyzed for 42 main and trace elements. Spraying a Cu-oxychloride particle suspension plus an adherent as a fungicide, induced some leaf concentration changes with respect to untreated control groups, though inputs of other elements from spraying were negligible. Cu- treatment tended to increase concentrations of Fe, Si and J, and to decrease Zn, Co and Cd in the leaves, because these effects appeared for both cultivars at all rootstocks. Other changes might be rather due to fertilization regime and climate.

Keywords apple leaves, Cu-spraying, trace elements, year-to-year variation.

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Ultrastructural Analysis of Pseudorabies Virus Infection in IB-RS-2 Cell Line and with Treatment by Persea americana Extract

Abstract In this study, we focused on the cycle of replication of the Pseudorabies virus (PrV) in the swine IB-RS-2 cell line in absence or in presence of an infusion from Persea americana leaves. The ultrastructure of the Nova Prata strain virus presents the typical characteristics of Varicelovirus as well as lytic replication with total cell destruction between 18 and 24 hours post-infection (pi). Adsorption is immediate followed by fusion penetration of the virus membranes with those of the host. The capsid once inside the cell migrates to the nucleus where it disappears. Precursor viral particles appear from 4 hours and will form the nuclear crystalloids. The capsids with the viral DNA incorporated migrate to the nuclear membranes where they receive viral envelope after de-envelopment and re-envelopment constituted by cytoplasmic membranes. Then the virions appear grouped in vesicles that merge with the plasma membrane and finally are released out of the cell and become associated with it. Infected cells in the presence of an infusion of Persea americana leaves show few viral particles and many cells without signs of infection. In the initial stages of replication, they are shown pleomorphic with a different morphology when compared with the control. At 7 h post-infection double core with a single envelope are found both between the nuclear membranes and in the cytoplasm of the cell. These findings indicate that the extract may be interfering with virus replication as well as useful in detecting possible targets of inhibition.

Keywords PrV; Aujeszky's disease virus; IB-RS-2 swine cell line; viral ultrastructure; antiviral; Persea americana.

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Mycobacterium gordonae infection in freshwater fish from lakes and ponds in a park at São Paulo city, Brazil

Abstract In recent year’s fish farming has greatly increased in Brazil, favoring the development of diseases such as mycobacteriosis. This is a chronic progressive disease that affects temperate and tropical fish, both freshwater and marine. Mycobacteriosis can occur in several species of fish and amphibian. In addition, some species of Mycobacterium spp. can be transmitted to humans by occupational or recreational source. A total of 54 fishes from lakes from São Paulo city, were collected and examined for mycobacteriosis. Granulomas were visualized in 5 fishes via histopathology (H&E), and acid-alcohol resistant bacilli were visualized in 8 animals by electron microscopy and 8 were positives using the Fite -Faraco technique. In this study, we isolated acid-fast bacillus from one fish which were identified as M. gordonae by molecular methods: PCR and sequencing.

Keywords mycobacteriosis, pathology, aquaculture, sanity, disease.

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Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practices in hand hygiene of students in biological sciences from Felix Houphouët-Boigny University of Cocody (Abidjan-Côte d’Ivoire)

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors, analyze and compare their effects on student hygiene behavior at Félix Houphouët-Boigny University. It is a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study, initially covering 333 students in the second and third year of Training and Research Unit of Biosciences from University Félix Houphouët-Boigny enrolled during the university year in 2015-2016. A total of 318 out of 333 students Interviewed or 95.49% attending the toilets. The majority of the students questioned, 219 (65.76%), had poor hand hygiene practices. There is a non-significant difference between hand hygiene practice and gender (p = 0.16). A staff of 325 students questioned out of 333 or 97.59% denounced a lack of toilets. 95.49% of them are aware of the handwashing procedure. The toilets are also used by girls and boys. We note an insignificant difference between toilet use and sex (p = 0.76).

The correct practice of handwashing is not practiced by the students of Training and Research Unit of Biosciences; this was confirmed by direct observation. In the area of toilet surveys, lacks of hygiene equipment and inadequate toilets have been reported.

Understanding the challenges of hand hygiene practice in academic may help in the development of hand hygiene promotion strategies for the prevention of infections, especially those that are handled. The promotion of hand hygiene should start with health education.

Keywords Hand, Hygiene, university, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Physicochemical Properties and Selected Heavy Metals in Tin-Mine Spoil Soils around Jos Plateau Nigeria

Abstract The physicochemical properties and heavy metals in both vegetated and non-vegetated spoil soils in Jos Plateau were determined. Three dug soil profiles and thirty three composite soil samples were collected with auger at depths of 0 – 15cm, 15 – 30cm and 30 – 50cm and analysed using standard methods. The results showed mean value ranges of 4.58 – 5.28 pH, 0.09 – 1.46 Organic matter, 42 84% Sand, 6 – 46% clay, 5 -29% silt, 0.022 - 0.110% total nitrogen, 14.80 – 41.44ppm available phosphorus, 3.13 – 5.00meq/100g exchangeable calcium, 1.45 – 2.35meq/100g exchangeable magnesium, 0.04 – 0.51meq/100g exchangeable potassium, 0.15 – 0.20meq/100g exchangeable sodium, 8.16 – 12.28meq/100g CEC126.80 – 778.33ppm Fe, 0.16 – 0.44ppm Al and 5.50 – 23.50ppm Mn. The soils were found to be predominantly Sandy Clay Loam, acidic and deficient in nutrients, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Exchangeable Bases. The concentrations of most parameters were higher in the cultivated spoil soils than in the uncultivated spoil soils. Land amendment materials such as organic wastes and town refuse ash should be applied to the soils in the area.

Keywords Tin mine, Spoil soils, Vegetated, Non-Vegetated, Jos Plateau, Nutrients, Cultivated.

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Regional Disparity Level at West Papua Province

Abstract A region possesses different potentials, conditions, and characteristics. Those aspects generate disparities between regions. Several factors that causing regional disparities related to physical and economic variables. Based on Gross Domestic Regional Product (PDRB) of West Papua Province 2012-2016, there were several sectors that significantly raised, i.e. mining and excavation, processing industry, and construction. Sorong City and Manokwari District had a domination role to the surrounding areas, and it affected into the imbalance growth speed of each areas, which in turn, it triggered the regional disparities. Manokwari is a capital of West Papua Province and a central of governmental activities, so the district got a fairly complete facilities, such as health, education, transportation, etc. The same condition was also applied to Sorong City. Therefore, the research objectives was to identify the regional disparity level reviewed from the population,, facilities and infrastructures, and regional economic based on Gini Index and Williamson Index. The results showed that the regional disparities on the scale of a province were medium level. On District scale, the results showed Pegunungan Arfak District was included in high level of disparity. Whereas the low level of disparity was concluded on Fakfak District, Kaimana District, Teluk Wondama District, Teluk Bintuni District, Manokwari Selatan District, Sorong District, and Raja Ampat District.

Keywords West Papua Province, disparity level, regional.

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A measure of marketing price transmission in the Red Onion Market of Sri Lanka

Abstract In the past there were several protectionist trade policies to safeguard the local onion production. This study examines their impact by means of nominal and effective protection rates and competiveness in resource utilization by competitiveness coefficient. There is a long-run co-integration relationship between the farm and the retail prices marketing margin resulting from this long-run relationship cause asymmetric short-run dynamic adjustments between the farm and the retail prices Welfare distribution among stakeholders is measured by classical welfare analysis. The analysis indicates that both big and red onion producers are noticeably protected by the trade policies and receive returns greater than they would get under a free market condition. Trade policies benefit consumers over producers. Gains to the nation are substantial.

Keywords Sri Lanka, Red Onion market, Transmission rate, onion production, farm.

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Protecting Human Health from Airborne Biological Hazardous Material by an Automatic Image Acquisition and Interpretation System

Abstract Human beings are exposed every day to bio-aerosols in their personal and/or professional life. The European Commission has issued regulations for protecting employees in the workplace from biological hazards. Airborne fungi can be detected and identified by an image-acquisition and interpretation system. In this paper we present recent results on the development of an automated image acquisition, sample handling and image-interpretation system for airborne fungi identification. We explain the application domain and describe the development issues. The development strategy and the architecture of the system are described and results are presented.

Keywords Health Monitoring, Microscopic image acquisition, microbiological sample handling, image analysis, image interpretation, case-based object recognition, case-based reasoning.

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