Sunday, 5 February 2017

Agriculture Journal: January 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-1, January 2017

Production and Application of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria as Biofertilizer: Field Trial at Maize Field, Uchalan, Burdwan District, West Bengal

Abstract Soil microorganism plays an important role in regulating the levels of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur at the rhizosphere. Solubilization of macronutrient is an important aspect in plant growth and development research. Phosphorus is one of the vital nutrient required for optimum growth of plant. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) plays an important role in increasing the phosphate uptake by the plants. Pikovskaya medium containing TCP or tricalcium phosphate helps in isolation of PSB from soil sample. Isolated strains were tested and screened by Halo zone formation and pH test. The selected strains showing marked decrease in pH and clear zone formation was selected for field trial. The objective of this study was to ascertain that PSBs isolated from the soil sample can be used as biofertilizer. Application of PSBs with a carrier mixed with maize seeds in the field of study and compared against a control field and against commercially available fertilizer showed that PSBs can improve the quality of soil and in turn improved the growth and development of the plants.

Keywords Biofertilizer, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria, chemical fertilizer, plant growth, soil fertility, field trial.

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Dissipation Pattern of carbendazim and cypermethrin on Curry Leaf

Abstract Field experiments were conducted during kharif 2014 and 2015 with curry leaf variety Suwasini to study the dissipation pattern of carbendazim 50 EC at 500 g a.i. ha-1 and cypermethrin 10 % EC @ 50 g a i/ha (550 ml/ha) 1 by giving two sprays first at vegetative stage and second 10 days later. The leaf samples collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 45th day after second spray and soil samples at 45th day for residue analysis showed initial deposits of carbendazim 16.00 mg kg-1 and Cypermetrin 13.09 mg kg-1 which ,dissipated to 0.04 mg kg -1 and 0. 28 mg kg – 1 respectively. The residues reached to Below Determination Level (BDL) at 20 and 10 days, respectively. As there were no pesticide recommendations and MRLs fixed for any of the pesticide in curry leaf, the day at which residues reached BDL can be suggested as the safe harvest period for curry leaf.

Keywords Dissipation pattern, , curry leaf, BDL, curry leaf.

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Nutritional Diagnosis of "Hass" Avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) Soil Fertility and Water Quality, In Tepoztlán, Morelos

Abstract In recent years, the avocado has become an important fruit species in Mexico, where it is distributed in six states, among which there is the state of Morelos. For the study, two agrohabitats with eight-year-old avocado orchards located in Tepoztlán, Morelos were selected. Soil fertility of the orchards was evaluated, as well as the quality of irrigation water, and the nutritional state of the leaves; sufficiency ranges were calculated, and the Deviation from Optimum Percentage method was used to interpret the results. Soils and the quality of irrigation water showed different chemical characteristics that had an influence on nutrient concentration in avocado leaves. The Deviation from Optimum Percentage (DOP) method allowed us to identify requirements of N, Zn, Mn, Fe and B in agrohabitat one, and deficiencies of P, K, Ca, S, Zn and Mn in agrohabitat two, which must be taken into account to implement a fertilization program in the studied orchards.

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Biotransformation of Panax notoginseng by fungi

Abstract Roots of Panax notoginseng were fermented with 30 fungi respectively. Almost one-third of the products showed increasing antibacterial activity. All products could inhibit GST-CDC25 phosphatase as a potential antitumor agent. HPLC profiles proved that components of unfermented P. notoginseng and fermented P. notoginseng have obviously changes.

Keywords Panax notoginseng, biotransformation, antibacterial activity, antitumor activity.

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Prediction of Soil Total Nitrogen Content using Spectraradiometer and GIS in southern Iraq

Abstract In this study, soil samples were collected from two locations: Samawa and Rumetha in southern Iraq. The samples from each location were split into two datasets: calibration set and validation set. VNIR reflectance (350-2500 nm) and GIS-Kriging were used in combination with Partial Least Square (PLS) to predict total N. only two regions reported higher determination coefficient R2 and lower Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) than the other wavelength regions. PLS calibration models yielded an R2 of 0.96 and 0.97 for Rumetha and 0.87 and 0.94 for Samawa location in bands at 500-600 and 800-1000 nm, respectively. The potential of VNIR-based and GIS-Kriging models to predict new unknown soil samples were assessed by using validation datasets from both studied locations. The cross-validation of GIS-Kriging models were unsatisfactory predicted with an Q2 of 0.28 between laboratory-measured and predicted total N values for Rumetha and 0.43 for Samawa location. While VNIR- based validation models achieved highly predictive power with an R2v of 0.84 between laboratory-measured and predicted total N values for Rumetha and 0.85 for Samawa location. These results reveal extremely decreasing in model predictive ability when shifting from VNIR Spectroscopy method to GIS-Kriging.

Keywords GIS, Kriging, Spectroradiometer, Total Nitrogen.

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Prevalence and predictors of mental health among farmworkers in Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey

Abstract

Background: Mental health problems represent a major component of the global burden of disease. The primary objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of psychological wellbeing among farmworkers and to evaluate their mental health services need for in rural primary health care settings.

Methods: The study sample comprised 1855 farmworkers (918 women, and 937 men) who were selected using probability cluster sampling method at 95% confidence interval (87.6 % response rate). The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and socio-demographic information form were used to data collection.

Results: The overall prevalence of mental health problems was 31.5%; the prevalence among women was 1.4 times that of men (35%, females; 28.2%, males). Logistic regression analyses revealed that poor general health, as well as presence of chronic diseases and exposure to traumatic life events predicted mental ill health among both sex. Poor economic situation, being seasonal migrant farmworker, and pesticide exposure history affected male mental health problems; while type of settlement, history of having disabled child at birth, and not having a family physician were significant predictors of female mental ill health (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for systematic development of community-based mental health services in conjunction with rural primary health care center and an integrated approach to health care of farmworkers. These include screening, early identification and treatment of mental health problems, development of non-communicable disease (NCD) control program, maternal health services and urgent measures to improve farmworkers’ work safety and pesticide applications.

Key words: Farmworkers, Psychological health, Predictors, General Health Questionnaire -12.

Disclosures: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Funding: This study was funded by a grant from Southeastern Anatolia Project Regional Development Administration

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Effect of enhanced solar UVB (280-320nm) radiation on secondary pigment synthesis in some plants

Abstract The investigation was carried out to find out whether enhanced UVB radiation increases the synthesis of secondary metabolites in some plants grown under tropical region. Like tropical plant temperate plant also grown successfully in the tropical region. Tropical plants are thought to have an inherent resistance to abiotic stress. The abiotic stress that enhances the ability of the plant by increasing the content of the secondary bioactive components. While the plants exposed to enhanced UVB radiation in the field condition, the synthesis of secondary pigments like flavonoids and anthocyanin level varied among species. In radish and beet- root the synthesis of flavonoid and anthocyanin the content was increased, whereas, in the onion and carrot, the level of synthesis of secondary pigment was less. But compared to ambient plants the UVB the irradiated the plant has more secondary pigment. So it proves that the UVB radiation increases the synthesis of secondary pigment content by activating the defence mechanism and to protect plants against UVB damage.

Keywords Anthocyanin, UV-B radiation, Carrot, Radish, Beetroot, Onion, Seconary pigment.

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Investigation of carbonisation of wheat stems from central Europe during slow pyrolysis at different temperatures

Abstract Slow pyrolysis of wheat stems from south-west Thuringia in Central Germany favours the interaction of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. As a result, after low pyrolysis temperatures of 600 °C, 800 °C or 1000 °C crystallinity of bio-carbon is pronounced. As shown by Raman spectroscopy, with increasing pyrolysis temperature, the intensity ratio ID/IG of D band to G band increases. This gives evidence of a growing amount of aromatic graphitic rings with a lot of disorder in the carbonaceous biogenetic material. With increasing pyrolysis temperature more 6-fold, still defective carbon rings form out of the amorphous sp2-C-C matrix. High resolution transmission electron microscopy identifies parallel layers of crystalline carbon that are oriented in bands after pyrolysis at 800 °C. This degree of order after a relatively low pyrolysis temperature is excellent. For many applications, regulated and oriented crystallinity is essential. Steering the orientation and fraction of crystalline bio-carbon could be favourable for producing carbon fibres of higher quality from suitable biomass. By regulating the composition of lignin to cellulose, hemicelluose or other substances, the bio-carbon crystallinity could be adjusted.

Keywords carbonation, wheat stems, pyrolysis, Central Europe.

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The CarboZALF-D manipulation experiment – experimental design and SOC patterns

Abstract The CarboZALF-D manipulation experiment – experimental design and SOC patterns

Soil erosion by water or tillage is an essential landscape-shaping factor with feedbacks to the carbon cycle. To study C dynamics and C balances as a function of soil erosion we set up a manipulation experiment at field scale, called “CarboZALF-D”. A defined amount of topsoil material was removed from an eroded Luvisol towards a Colluvic Regosol and reactive, clay-enriched subsoil material was blended into the topsoil of the eroded Luvisol. By doing so we induced transient states for C cycling, net fluxes of CO2 and the C balance. The overall aim of our experiment is to get reliable findings to answer the question: Does soil erosion causes a CO2 source or sink in arable landscapes? In this paper the concept, implementation, and preliminary results of the manipulation experiment are described.

Keywords bulk density, carbon stock, manipulation experiment, simulated erosion, SOC pattern.

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Evaluation of curryleaf Farmgate Samples for Pesticide Residues

Abstract Seventy five curry leaf samples from curry leaf grown farms in Guntur, Ananthapur and Medak districts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India were analysed for pesticide residues by LCMS/MS. Recovery studies were performed at 0.025 0.05 and 0.5 mg kg -1 fortification levels of each compound and the recoveries obtained ranged from 81.0 % to 119.0 % with relative standard deviations lower than 19.1 %.The method showed good linearity over the assessed range 0.01–1.0 mg kg-1with correlation coefficient of 0.999 and the detection and quantification limits for the pesticides studied varied from 0.001mg Kg-1and 0.05 mg Kg-1, respectively. The samples were detected with number of compounds of different groups dominated by Organo Phosphates (29.6%) followed by Synthetic Pyrethroids (20.69%), Fungicides (13.79%), Neo nicotinoids (10.34%), Herbicides(6.90%) and Carbamates(3.45%).The residue levels ranged from 37.78 mg Kg-1 to 0.05 mg Kg-1.It is therefore necessary to conduct extensive monitoring studies on pesticide usage pattern on curry leaf in different agro-climatic regions of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana to know the exact status of pesticide contamination at farm gate level.

Keywords Curryleaf, farmgate, pesticide residues, quantification.

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Evaluation of characteristics of Simplicillium lanosoniveum on pathogenicity to aphids and in vitro antifungal potency against plant pathogenic fungi

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the aphidicidal and antifungal activities of Simplicillium lanosoniveum in laboratory conditions. S. lanosoniveum isolate Cs0701 shown to be pathogenic to the aphids, Aphis gossypii, Ceratovacuna lanigera and Hysteroneura setariae. The data showed that isolate Cs0701 exudates had greater mycelial growth-inhibiting effects on plant pathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Alternaria brassicicola and Rhizoctonia solani, in cellophane paper antibiosis test. In addition, mycelial growth of Cochliobolus miyabeanus, Curvularia lunata and Fusarium sp. were partially inhibited by isolate Cs0701 exudates. The culture filtrates of isolate Cs0701 were screened for their antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungi. The results revealed that A. brassicicola, Cochliobolus miyabeanus and Curvularia lunata conidial germination was inhibited by isolate Cs0701. The culture filtrate was also able to inhibit conidial germination of jasmine orange (Murraya paniculata) powdery mildew, Oidium murrayae. However, plant host range tests showed that isolate Cs0701 was not pathogenic to Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Lemma perpusilla and Glycine max. Taken together, these findings provide convincing experimental evidence that S. lanosoniveum isolate Cs0701 is biologically active against both aphids and plant pathogenic fungi including powdery mildew. Pot and field trials are necessary to confirm efficacy of S. lanosoniveum against aphids and plant pathogenic fungi.

Keywords biological control agent, Simplicillium lanosoniveum, aphidicidal activity, antifungal activity.

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Chalkbrood: pathogenesis and the interaction with honeybee defenses

Abstract— There are numerous threats that affect bee populations worldwide such as exposure to pesticides; genetic diversity, poor nutrition and the impact of pathogens. Between them, Ascosphaera apis is the etiological agent of chalkbrood disease that affects honeybees brood. To understand the biology of this pathogen, we revised the phylogeny, morphology, and sexual reproduction. The pathogenesis, closely related to the factors that affect the virulence the A. apis and their interactions with the host, are determinant at moment of developing chalkbood. The honeybee develops several strategies to defend themselves from these pathogens. First, the individual immunity mechanisms such us perithrophic membrane, the microbiota of midgut larvae and the humoral and cellular immunity are the first defense barriers against A. apis. Later, other mechanisms would appear, related to the social immunity, such as their social organization, the polyandry, the hygienic behavior and the social fever, that change the environmental conditions in the bee colony reducing A. apis viability. However, other pathogens such as Nosema spp, Varroa destructor, several viruses, and the presence of pesticides affect the sanitary status of the honeybee allowing the fungus to develop easily. Finally, we describe to our knowledge, the best three natural alternatives that could be studied in order to employ them in field trails.

Keywords— chalkbrood, epidemiology, honeybees, host´s resistance, pathogen´s virulence.

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Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Waste Processing to Obtain Chitin, Protein, and Astaxanthin-Enriched Extract

Abstract - Blue crab’ waste is a good source of valuable substances although only few studies are related to its use, especially concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis and recovery of compounds such as astaxanthin. Besides, the reuse of crab waste may reduce environmental pollution, add value to this residue and promote a social responsibility in several small fishery communities. Therefore, this study aimed to recover protein, chitin, and astaxanthin from blue crab waste by means of enzymatic hydrolysis with alcalase and bromelain. High hydrolysis efficiency, defined by hydrolysis degree (DH), was achieved with 3% alcalase (E/S), recovering 30% of protein in 120 minutes reaction. The highest extraction yield (3.1 ± 0.4% - w/w) and astaxanthin content (97.7 ± 14.3% μgastaxanthin/gresidue) were from demineralized sample under acid process (DERS), before carotenoid recovery. Thermogravimetric analysis of the sample with enzymatic deproteinization presented higher thermal stability and mass loss. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the blue crab processing waste proved to be efficient for the production of protein hydrolysates, mostly using 3% of alcalase enzyme related to the substrate (E/S). Additionally, it was possible to obtain chitin and astaxanthin-enriched extract from the hydrolyzed residue with enzymes, similar to what obtained through an alkaline deproteinization process and, consequently, promote improvements in the blue crab waste environmental management.

Keywords - Blue crab waste, Alcalase, Astaxanthin, Chitin, Protein.

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Experimental and Modeling Column Study of Phosphorus Removal by Permeable Reactive Materials

Abstract This study evaluates the performance of permeable reactive materials for phosphorus removal from water by experimental and model development. A one dimensional solute transport model that describes adsorption process in porous media by mass transfer equation and surface area reduction was developed. Validity of the model was evaluated using several data sets from batch and column experiments. The marble dust, standard sand and volcanic ash were utilized as permeable reactive barriers and porous materials inside packed columns in this research. It was found that the calcium (Ca) content was the most important characteristic of the permeable reactive materials and a factor determining their phosphorus removal efficiency. A high Ca content material showed higher removal capacity of phosphorus. The results of this study demonstrated that the marble dust sorbent has a high efficiency to remove phosphorus from aqueous solution. Comparing the performances of three packed columns filled up with different combinations of the three investigated materials, the differences in permeability played an important role in the treatment residence time and its ensuing effect on the removal efficiencies of phosphorus from water. A combination of 70% marble dust and 30% volcanic ash (as porous packed layers in one column) made a reasonable compromise between high steady phosphorus removal efficiency (~80%) and longevity (over 180 days). A suggestion/recommendation in conclusion was proposed based on these results.

Keywords column experiment, marble dust, phosphorus, reactive material, solute transport model.

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Study of Population Density Luffa Cylindrical at University of Baghdad

Abstract A study was conducted to determine the population density of the Leaves diggers liriomyzasativae in the Plant Protection Department, college of Agriculture - University of Baghdad, for the period from 01/02/2015 to 15/05/2015.

The study results showed that the highest density of hoof liriomyzasativae 2.7 digger / Leave dated 05/08/2015 and the lowest was 0.3 hoof /leave dated 01/02/2015, and the results showed the presence of three peaks of the pest Nilai starting from 27/2 and ends 3/4. It notes the fluctuation of population density of the hoof between the rise and fall, which dates back to the environmental conditions and the enemies of vital accompaniment of the pest, and the results showed the presence of the enemy's vital Neochrysocharisformosa (Westwood) (Eulophidae: Hymenoptera).

Keywords University of Baghdad, Population density, Leaves diggers liriomyzasativae, Plant Protection.

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Molecular mechanisms regulating storage root formation in plants

Abstract Storage roots are important for the growth and development in plants because they provide nutrients, water, and energy storage. Storage roots are also modulating growth direction, disease resistance, and root formation at the cellular and molecular level through interactions of genes and gene networks. However, molecular mechanisms regulating storage root formation in plants are not fully understood. In this review, we have overviewed transcriptional regulation of storage root formation, proteomic regulation of storage root formation, ethylene regulation of storage root formation, auxin regulation of storage root formation, gene expression regulation of storage root formation, and metabolism regulation of storage root formation. We have reviewed the basic regulatory principles of storage root formation from the network of genomics to proteomics and metabolism in plants that will be valuable to research work in storage root growth and development regulation at the molecular level.

Keywords Gene expression, post-transcriptional gene silencing, storage root development.

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Evaluation of Ornamental Coleus for Landscaping of Shady Areas

Abstract There is a strong desire amongst people to have colour in the shady areas of their landscapes. But shade-loving plants generally are not richly or brightly coloured. Ornamental coleus is an inconspicuous flower bearing ornamental plants which can act as a colorful option for shady landscape. Ornamental coleus is a promising ornamental foliage plant which provides a bold texture and a thick density for shady landscape. With this background, collection, conservation and evaluation of different ornamental coleus types / varieties carried out at ICAR-Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Goa. Twenty four different types / varieties of ornamental coleus have been collected, maintained and evaluated for their suitability for landscape use. Significant differences were observed among different coleus types / varieties for various morphological and quality parameters. Plant height , number of leaves, number of branches, Stem girth, Length of leaf with petiole, Petiole length, leaf width, Length of leaf without petiole varied from 42.00 cm (Juicy Lucy) -89.67 cm (Eruption), 24.89 (Gay Delight) -72.00 (Trailing Queen), 3.00 (Mahogany Giant) -8.67 (Eruption), 0.563 cm (Blusher) - 0.817 cm (Eruption), 11.03 cm (Tilt a Whirl) - 18.83cm (Grape expectations), 2.07 cm (Pistachio Nightmare) - 6.00 cm (Eruption), 5.50 cm(Trailing Queen)-10.83 cm(Grape expectations), 8.33cm(Tilt a Whirl) - 14.78 cm (Grape expectations) respectively. Different ornamental coleus used in the present study exhibited an incredible range of diversity for various traits and it could be recommended to function for various purposes in landscaping like beds, borders, hedges, planters, hanging baskets, vertical gardens or containers.

Keywords Coleus, Colour, Shade, Landscaping, Purpose.

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Removal of 137Cs from contaminated soil using pilot electrokinetic decontamination equipment

AbstractThe removal efficiencies of 137Cs for 10 days were 50-70%. The removal efficiencies according to the elapsed time after 10 days were reduced. When an electric current density of 25-75 mA/cm2, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid as electrolyte, a 0.5-2.0 cm/min hydraulic conductivity of soil were applied, respectively, the time required for the removal efficiency of 137Cs to reach 80% was 20-30 days. For improving removal efficiency of 137Cs from contaminated soil, it is necessary to increase an electric current density using sulfuric acid as an electrolyte and to decrease hydraulic conductivity of soil in the soil cell.

KeywordsDecontamination, Electrokinetic equipment, 137Cs, Soil, Removal Efficiency.

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Example of management of water resources for agricultural irrigation

Abstract Water is a natural resource vital to life, economic development and social welfare. The National Water Plan resulting from the transposition of the Water Framework Directive, has as an objective: benefit the existing irrigated, with the aim of making more efficient use of water, in particular, with regard to reducing losses, storage, transport and distribution of water, its application in soil and the rationalization of consumption. [1]. Portugal, in Aveiro, between Nazaré and Alcobaça council, has an area with a simple irrigation system for irrigation, called Cela hydro-agricultural profit.

Keywords irrigation, water, agriculture, Portugal, management.

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Production arrowroot depending on the size of the rhizome and substrate in Campo Grande –MS, Brazil

Abstract The arrowroot starch is much appreciated in the preparation of desserts, breads, cookies and cakes. However the production of starch by the commercial varieties is still made in an amateur way without proper management. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in factorial 3 (rhizomes sizes) x 2 (substrates). The three rhizome sizes arrowroot, were classified as small (≤ 15.0 g), medium (≥ 15.01 and ≤ 30.0) and big (≥ 30.01 g) according to their weights. We evaluated: height collect from the region to the apex of the leaf, stem diameter at the collar region survival percentage of rhizomes, shoot dry weight, root dry mass, average number of seedlings per rhizome and calculated the index quality seedlings Dickson. There were no differences in the interaction between plants x substrate. However the size of rhizomes influenced the quality of the seedlings, and the big (≥ 30.01 g) rhizomes was what produced seedlings with the best quality.

KeywordsMarantha arundinacea L., propagation, starch, ground.

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Reducing Postharvest Softening of Papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) by using an aqueous 1-Methylcyclopropene Application

Abstract The shelf life of ‘Maradol’ papaya fruit (Carica papaya) harvested at one-quarter stage maturity (yellow-orange color in 25% of fruit surface) and treated with aqueous 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was evaluated. The effects of immersion time (30 or 60 seconds) and dose response (50 or 300 ng∙kg-1) on the quality of papaya fruit stored for 12 days at 20 ± 2 °C and 85 ± 5% RH were studied. After 3 days, the control and fruit treated with 50 ng∙kg-1 1-MCP for 30 seconds lost 82% and 72% of the initial firmness, respectively. A 1-MCP concentration of 300 ng∙kg-1 for 30 or 60 seconds inhibited softening and slowed skin color change for 12 days. The pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids concentration ranged from 5.3-5.7, 0.06-0.12 % and 10-12 %, respectively. The shelf life of papaya was extended up to 3 days in fruit treated with 50 ng∙kg-1 1-MCP for either 30 or 60 seconds of immersion.

Keywords 1-MCP dipping treatment, color change, Carica papaya, ripening.

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