Saturday, 1 April 2017

Agriculture Journal: March 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-3, March 2017

Effect of Grazing Land Improvement Practices on Herbaceous production, Grazing Capacity and their Economics: Ejere district, Ethiopia

Abstract The effects of different grazing land improvement practices on herbaceous production, grazing capacities and their economics were studied in Ejere district, west Shoa zone, Ethiopia. Four different treatments, i.e., application of Urea and Diammonium phosphate (DAP), cattle manure, wooden ash, and a control/no application) were randomly applied to the study plots in three replications for each treatment. All experimental plots were fenced throughout the study period. The application of urea and DAP significantly increased grass (3620.86 kg ha-1) and total biomass production (5742.93 kg ha-1). Of the 6 herbaceous species recorded in the Urea and DAP plots, four of them were grasses with Setaria verticellata having the highest percentage composition (35.54%) while the control plot was dominated by Cyperus rotundus (31.5%) and Cerastium octandrum (31.5%). Less land is required to maintain a tropical livestock unit (TLU) in Urea and DAP applied plots (0.03 ha TLU-1) than in plots applied with other treatments (mean = 0.09 ha TLU-1). Similar to the result of the biological data, the participants of the grassland day rated the Urea and DAP applied treatment best because of the high production of grass. Considering total biomass production, application of manure was advantageous to the farmers due to increased net benefits and the marginal rate of return is above the minimum accetable rate for this sort of treatment. On the other hand, considering grass production alone, application of Urea and DAP was more profitable for farmers as far as they store and sell it in the dry seasons. In conclusion, we recommend a long-term study to examine the effects of the different treatments on productivity of grazing lands, herbaceous species composition, grazing capacities, livestock, the environment, and their economics.

Keywords Ash, grazing land improvement, manure, Urea, DAP.

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Agricultural Waste Management in order to sustainable agriculture in Karnataka

Abstract Renewable energy as an alternative of fossil fuel for minimizing pollution and related issues, has got significant role in recent years. Agricultural residues as a source of biomass can be used to produce biogas. Every year while production of agriculture product generates lots of agro-residues and in many cases either left behind with no use or burn. Whereas can be prevented losing this source of energy by converting to the other types of energy. Nevertheless in present study assessing the potential of producing biogas out of biomass (agricultural residue) during one year in Karnataka state has conducted. For this purpose, production of agricultural crop residues data during one year depends on volatile solid (VS), extracted and according to the related coefficient, potential of biogas (methane) production computed. Results showed Maximum extracted methane respectively belonged to the rice, jowar, ragi, peanut and cotton residues. The total potential of methane production during the one year, 6391403732 cubic meters estimated.

Keywords agriculture residues, waste management, biomass, biogas.

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CdTe quantum dots/Poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) multilayer films: preparation and application for gaseous sensors

Abstract CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) multilayer films (QDMF) have been self-assembled by layer-by-layer (LBL) technique. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by using Te, NaBH4, and CdCl2 as precursors and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as stabilizer. The as-prepared composites were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis adsorption spectrum(UV-vis), and Fluorescence spectrum(FS), respectively. It was shown that the self-assembled QDMF in this study could be used as gaseous sensors for detecting organic gases, such as ammonia, acetone, methanol and formaldehyde. The quenching mechanism of CdTe QDs multilayer films by formaldehyde was studied in detail and The detection limit was 10-236ppm.

Keywords CdTe quantum dots, gaseous sensor, PDDA, QDMF.

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Biosorption of Malathion pesticide using Spirogyra sp.

Abstract The biosorption of Malathion from aqueous solution by green algal biomass was investigated. The green algae used were of the species Spirogyra and was collected from Neugal river near Sujanpur, Himachal Pradesh. Batch biosorption experiments were performed to examine the effect of contact time, pH, biomass concentration and initial Malathion concentration. The concentration of residual Malathion concentration after biosorption was determined using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 309 nm. The maximum adsorption was found to be at pH 7 after a contact time of 5 hours with initial Malathion concentration of 100 mg/L and biomass of weight 75 mg. The equilibrium biosorption data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. Freundlich isotherm was found to be more favorable than Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords algae, biosorption, isotherm, Malathion, pesticide.

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The Relationship between Soil Moisture and Temperature Vegetation on Kirklareli City Luleburgaz District A Natural Pasture Vegetation

Abstract This study was realized in 2014 – 2015 in two different sections of Kirklareli city Luleburgaz district Sakizkoy village natural pasture in order to research the effect of soil moisture and soil temperature on area covered by vegetation, plant species and dry yield. As research area, study was conducted in two different sections defined as A and B located to the north and south of village coppice forest area located within the borders of Kirklareli city Luleburgaz district Sakizkoy village. By this study, the relation between soil moisture and temperature with plant species were evaluated by CANOCO 4.5 computer program. Accordingly, the effect of ecological values on vegetative properties was presented. According to research results, soil moisture and temperature have significant effect on vegetation. In the first year when soil moisture was high, hay yield was 2901.9 kg/ha while the yield was detected as 480.1 kg/ha after soil temperature (which is inversely correlated with soil moisture) increased in the second year. It was determined that Lolium perenne (one of the dominant species of vegetation) is common in parcels with high moisture while Chrysopogon gryllus is common in parcels where soil temperature is high.

Keywords pasture, dry yield, soil moisture, soil temperature, CANOCO 4.5.

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Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen compounds in Assam (India)

Abstract The study comprises estimate of wet deposited nitrogenous compounds in Assam (India). Deposition has been estimated from a survey works (2010-11) at urban and peri-urban areas of Assam. Air samples were collected by clinical syringe (10 cm3) for Oxides of Nitrogen (NO, NO2: NOx) and reduced Nitrogen (NH3, NH4+: NHy). The samples were diffused into 10 cm3 each of distilled water and 0.1N HCl respectively for estimation of mean concentration of weighted hydrogen (µeql-1), quantity of elemental nitrogen (N) or nitrate (NO3-1) and ammonium (NH4+) ions expressed in mg l-1 or kg ha-1y-1. The measured concentrations of the nitrogenous compounds were interpolated with a properly used Kriging Technique on a 1km x 1km grid covering districts characterised by varying congestions of population, vehicular transport and of industrial evidences. There were many fold variations of these air quality parameters among the major sites and locations of the pollutants e.g. nitrogen deposited through aerosol of its oxides ranged from 6.0-38 kg ha-1yr-1, whereas nitrogen accumulation from the reduced aerosol was 7-24 kg ha-1yr-1. Tissue nitrogen in some indicator plant species (e.g.Pinus longifolia, Ficus benjamina), collected from the square grids of polluted areas was also elevated. Thus, the hypothesis that the North-east India, especially Assam is also facing with enrichment of nitrogenous pollution due to anthropogenic activities, mass vehicular and industrial growth, was tested.

Keywords— Oxides of nitrogen, reduced nitrogen, weighted hydrogen, aerosols, pollution.

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The Influence of Vermiculite on the Uptake of Silver Nanoparticles in a Terrestrial System

Abstract The uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles in soil was investigated in the presence of increasing concentrations of Vermiculite, typical 2:1 clay. Two insect species, Acheta domesticus and Tenebrio molitor, and two plant species, Helianthus annuus and Sorghum vulgare, were exposed to silver nanoparticles in the presence of increasing concentrations of Vermiculite in soil. Silver nanoparticles were characterized using techniques including transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffraction. The levels of silver in test species exposed to silver nanoparticles were measured using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. An increase in the cation exchange capacity of soil was observed with the increase in the concentration of vermiculite in soil. The results suggested a decrease in the uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles in soil by Acheta domesticus as a function of increasing concentrations of Vermiculite in soil. No apparent trend was observed in the remaining species. Both plant species were found to accumulate silver in their roots. The translocation of silver to stems and leaves was observed in the case of Helianthus annuus. Results from this study suggest that the presence of Vermiculite in soil could possibly decrease the uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles.

Keywords Silver nanoparticles, Acheta domesticus, Tenebrio molitor, Helianthus annus, Sorghum vulgare, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer, Cation exchange capacity.

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Comparison of Resistance to Fusarium wilts disease in Seeded and Regenerated Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

Abstract Plant tissue culture has been used as a tool for crop improvement in many different ways. Such as somaclonal variation that occurred in many different crops. In this study a program for disease resistance was established in sesame using somaclonal variation. As resistance to Fos is very important so different kinds and concentrations of Plant Growth Regulators were tested for producing of plantlet regenerated from apical shoot explants.

The results showed that the combination of BA and NAA also BA and IAA with ABA could be used for regenerating sesame plantlets from apical shoots. The difference in BA concentrations had a positive effect on shoot and root regeneration and at least plant regeneration. So with combination of high level of BA and low level of NAA shooting from explants was dominant and with low level of BA and high level of NAA rooting was progressed. Regenerated plantlets and seeded planlets were compared for examining of resistance or susceptibility to Fos. The result showed that somaclonal variant resulted from regeneration of shoot and root of sesame could lead to producing resistant plantlets.

Keywords fusarium, sesame, somaclonal variation.

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Analysis of Trend and Variability of Temperature in Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria, 1984-2015

Abstract Temperature being one of the indicators of climate change has become one of the most important discussions of recent times. Changes in temperature influence a variety of processes directly or indirectly which cut across every aspect of man existences. This paper therefore examined the trend in temperature as tools of climate change over Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria, which is an area well known for crop agriculture. Temperature data covering a period of 31 years (1984-2015) were collected and analyzed using mean, moving average, standard deviation coefficient of variation and linear regression. Result revealed that there is a positive trend in temperature over the study period and that the area is getting warmer by 0.0037oc annually, which is an Indication that Ebonyi State is experiencing a rise in air surface temperature. Since most of the inhabitants are dependent on economic activities that are temperature sensitive like farming, the study therefore recommends that measures should be taken by all stakeholders including the government, individuals and cooperate bodies to take the issue of climate variability serious in the study area in order to mitigate its impact in the long run.

Keywords Climate Change, Ebonyi, Trend, Temperature, Agriculture.

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Analyzing Marketing Margins and the Direction of Price Flow in the Tomato Value Chain of Limpopo Province, South Africa

Abstract The Limpopo Province is home to South Africa’s tomato farming giants, some of whom also occupy the position of the largest producers of the commodity in the Southern Hemisphere. Regardless of its importance in the tomato industry of the country, there are few studies analysing the mechanism through which prices of tomatoes are determined and transmitted from the farm gate in Limpopo to the various provincial, local and international markets. This study attempts to fill the knowledge gap on the performance of Limpopo Province’s tomato markets by examining the marketing margins and the direction of price flow amongst the successive tomato marketing levels. By means of the Concurrent Marketing Margin Analysis approach, it was established that the farmers’ portion of the consumer’s Rand is low. About 85.1% of the consumer’s Rand goes to pay for marketing margins. Granger causality tests show that both the wholesale and retail prices are caused by farm gate prices. The farm level is therefore key to tomato price determination in Limpopo Province of South Africa and pertinent policies that improve the commodity’s primary sector may potentially enhance the other sectors in value chain that depend on tomato production.

Keywords Limpopo Province, market dominance, marketing margins, price flow, tomato markets, vertical price linkage.

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Genome–Wide Analysis and Expression Pattern of the AP2/ERF Gene Family in Kiwifruit under Waterlogging Stress Treatment

AbstractAPETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factors play important roles in the response to abiotic stresses. It is now possible to identify all of the AP2/ERF genes in the kiwifruit genome because the kiwifruit genome project has been completed. 183 AP2/ERF genes were identified and compared with AP2/ERF genes from Arabidopsis in this study. The 183 AP2/ERF kiwifruit genes were classified into four subfamilies: DREB (64), ERF (94), AP2 (19) and RAV (5), as well as one soloist. RNA-sequence and Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis results showed that 20 genes were responsive to waterlogging stress, suggesting that AP2/ERF transcription factors play important roles in the response to waterlogging stress in kiwifruit

KeywordsAP2/ERF, kiwifruit, waterlogging stress.

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New banana genotypes and cultivars more productive for southern Minas, Brazil

Abstract Southern of Minas state, is a important producer of banana, especially the cultivars Prata-Anã, Nanicão and Maçã. These cultivars present low productivity, great plant height and are susceptible to major banana diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative and productive behavior of banana cultivars as Prata, Nanicão and Maçã, in Lavras, MG, Brazil to select those with the best features, of bunch and fruit size, lower production cycle and disease resistance in high land conditions. Were evaluated the following materials: type: ‘Prata’: ‘Prata-Anã’ (control), ‘BRS Maravilha’, ‘BRS Vitoria’, PA 94-01; type ‘Nanicão’: ‘Grande Naine’ (control) and FHIA 17 and type ‘Maçã’: ‘Maçã’ (control) and YB 42-03. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications and 16 plants per plot. Regarding the type ‘Prata-Anã’, ‘BRS Maravilha’ and PA 94-01 are recommended by their greater productivity, plant height, production cycle, flavor and fruit appearance in relation to cv ‘Prata-Anã’ traditionally grown in region. PV 94-01 and ‘Vitoria’, despite the greats plant height, are recommended due to the greater productivity. The YB 42-03 genotype is an alternative to ‘Maçã’ because it is similar to productivity, size and production cycle.

Keywords Musa, Banana, Production cycle, Yield.
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Uptake of Silver from Polyvinylpyrrolidine Coated Silver Nanoparticles in a Terrestrial System

Abstract The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has facilitated their uninterrupted entry into various ecosystems. Nanoparticles are stabilized using a variety of approaches for various applications. The present study has investigated the uptake of polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP) coated Ag NPs in a terrestrial system. Two insect (Acheta domesticus and Tenebrio molitor) and two plant species (Sorghum vulgare and Helianthus annuus) were used in the study. The effect of concentration and size of PVP-coated Ag NPs was investigated. The test species were maintained in soil spiked with 0, 1, 5, 25, 125, and 625 mg/kg PVP-coated 30-50 nm Ag NPs to test the effect of concentration of Ag NPs on uptake. Similarly, the test species were maintained in soil spiked with 25 mg/kg of 20, 30-50, and 50-80 nm PVP-coated Ag NPs to study the effect of size of nanoparticles on uptake. The PVP-coated Ag NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The levels of silver in test samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. A concentration dependent increase in the levels of Ag in both the insect species was observed as a function of increasing concentrations of coated Ag NPs in soil. An increase in the levels of Ag as a function of increasing size of coated Ag NPs was observed with Acheta domesticus. No apparent trend was observed with Tenebrio molitor species. A concentration dependent increase in the levels of Ag in the roots of both the plants was observed as a function of increasing concentrations of coated Ag NPs in soil. Additionally, the translocation of Ag to other plant tissues was observed in Helianthus annuus, a dicot plant.

Keywords Silver nanoparticles, polyvinylpyrrolidine, Acheta domesticus, Tenebrio molitor, Sorghum vulgare, Helianthus annuus, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy.

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Radial variation in microfibril angle of Acacia mangium.

Abstract Thirteen years old provenance trials of Acacia mangium from five provenances were established at five sites in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, were sampled for this study. Fifty trees were sampled at random and cut to study radial variation in microfibril angle in the SS2 of secondary wall of the fibre using polarised microscope. Microfibril angle decreased from pith to bark with the greatest decrease occurred within the first two radial sampling near to the pith. It ranged from 5.9° to 28.8° with an overall mean and coefficient of variation of 12.6° and 45.8% respectively. It had a mean value of 21.4° at pith and 6.9° near the bark, which is a decrease of 67.8%. Highly significant different in mircrofibril angle were detected between radials of individual trees at α≥0.001. It was the major contributors to the total variance in which contributed for about 64.8%. Variations between trees were highly significant at α≥0.001 and accounted for 25.5% of the variation in microfibril angle while differences between the two orientations were not significant at α≤0.05.

Keywords Acacia mangium, microfibril angle, radial variation, pith to bark, interaction.

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Tuesday, 7 March 2017

Agriculture Journal February-2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-2, February 2017

Toxicity and Effect of Cypermethrin onTotal Protein and Nucleic Acid Content in the Tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala

Abstract Effect of cypermethrin (25%EC) on total protein and nucleic acid content in different tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala was assessed by static renewal bioassay, using different sub-lethal concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% of 96h LC50) for 5, 10 and 15 days duration. There was a gradual decrease in protein content in all the tissues under sub-lethal concentrations at all exposure periods with maximum percentage of depletion (45.26%) in muscle and minimum (35.12%) in kidney at 15 days and at 20% 96hLC50. DNA and RNA contents were not altered much by cypermethrin at 5th day which later gradually decreased with increased exposure period. Decrement in DNA content is less in muscle when compared to the other tissues. Maximum percentage of depletion in DNA was (17.17%) in liver and minimum (13.94%) in muscle at 15 days and at 20% 96hLC50. RNA content decreased significantly in liver (29.90%), muscle (25.53%), brain (23.38%), kidney (21.82%) and gill (20.34%). This decrease was comparatively higher at 15 days and at 20% 96hLC50. Influence of cypermethrin was found to be time and exposure dependent for both the nucleic acids in the aquaculture practices used edible fish.

Keywords Cypermethrin, DNA, Protein, RNA, Synthetic pyrethroids, Toxicity.

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Cloning and Functional Analysis of TCAP3 Gene in Taxus Chinensis var. mairei

Abstract Taxus Chinensis var. mairei is a valuable plant species for timber and taxoids isolated from this species are very important compounds that are used for cancer treatment. Although chemical investigation on T. chinensis var. mairei are popular, functional identification of genes isolated from this species is rare. In this investigation, we have isolated TCAP3 gene and analyzed its expression pattern in different tissue and developmental stages through Real time-PCR; then we transformed this gene into Arabidopsis and analyzed its function. Our results demonstrated that its cDNA contains 846 bp bases (coding 197 amino acids) constituted by four typical domains, M, I, K, C with conserved motif, Phylogenetic analysis showed that TCAP3 is more ancient than angiosperm B class genes. Alignment of protein sequence demonstrated the conserved motifs, which illustrated that TCAP3 belongs to gymnosperm Gymno B class MADS-box genes with PI-derived, on C-teminal, which is similar structure to the Gymno B class MADS-box genes that they share the same B class gene specific conserved motif. Expression analysis of TCAP3 in different tissue showed that it only expression in male strobilus, not in leaf, bud and female strobilus at different developmental stages. We divided the stages according to paraffin sections of male strobilus. The results indicated that TCAP3 expresses dynamically along with the male strobilus. Heterologous expression of TCAP3 in Arabidopsis demonstrated that TCAP3 was involved in flower, especially the filaments morphological development.

Keywords Taxus Chinensis var. Mairei; gene cloning; B-class gene; expression pattern; functional analysis.

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Study of Dyeing of Cotton Fabric using Peanut Pod Natural Dyes using Al2So4 CuSo4 and FeSo4 Mordanting Agent

Abstract The decline in the use of artificial colourants due to their toxicity in food and textile industry, put forward by international market has increased the importance of natural raw materials. From those, peanut pod (Arachis hypogaea) with solid applications is one of the most important sources of natural dyes. The major colouring component in peanut is pods, extracted from the fresh and dried peanut pod. The aim of present work is to evaluate peanut pod powder as natural textile dyestuff. The work consists of three steps, i.e. extraction, characterization and dyeing processes. The dye extraction procedure is conventional and traditional. Dyeing of cotton fabrics with the extract of peanut pod powder has been carried out and dyeing has been optimized using three mordanting agents as: Alum, Copper Sulphate and Ferrous Sulphate. Finally, dyed fabric have been subjected to different textile laboratory tests e.g., colour fastness, light fastness, washing fastness and rubbing fastness (dry and wet).

Keywords Peanut Pod, Natural Dyes, Cotton Fabric, Mordanting Agents, Environmental Friendly.

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The Role of Soil Organisms and Functions in different Coconut based Multiple Cropping Systems

AbstractSampling was done in wet and intermediate zones represented by the Walpita and Makandura research centers, respectively. Eleven land use systems were considered for the study; coconut mono culture (CM), bare land (BL) and coconut multiple cropping. Under coconut multiple cropping, nine different intercrops were selected separately for each zones. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates (n = 3). The experiment was conducted under mature baring coconut (>20 years) plantation. Soil Macrofauna was sampled using one transect with three replicates at each land use type using quadrate size (30×30cm) from 0-30 cm depth and visible organisms were handpicked and preserved in 75% alcohol. Dilute plate technique and Spread plate technique was used to determine the soil micro organisms’ density. Those techniques were used to cultivate the fungi and bacteria under and dilution level respectively.

Research identified 12 classes (Crusteacea, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gastropoda, Acarina, Araneida, Scopionida, Chilapoda, Diplopoda, Amphibia, Reptelia) and 14 orders (Hemiptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Thysanura, Hymenoptera, Lepidotera, Orthoptera, Blattaria, Mantodea, Phasmida, Dermaptera, Isoptera, Siphonaptera, Thysanoptera) of soil organisms. Class insecta shows the high diversity with 14 orders. Colony forming unit (CFU) value of bacteria was higher than that of the fungi value. Findings of intermediate and wet zones’ studies suggested that coconut multiple cropping systems may have high diversity, abundance and functional role of soil organisms. Both zones studies suggested that coconut multiple cropping systems may increase soil moisture factor, respiration rate, biomass carbon content, organic carbon percentage, total nitrogen content, organic matter content and C:N ratio in 0-30cm depth other than the coconut monoculture systems. Overall data of two different zones indicated a significant positive correlation of soil organism diversity, abundance and their functional role with cropping systems. Those data can be used as a reliable basic bio indicator for payments for ecosystem services (PES). It supports to valorize the economic value of the ecological services returned by soil organisms.

Keywords—Soil organisms, diversity, abundance, multiple cropping systems, eco system services, payments for ecosystem services, soil ecology.

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Enterocin 55 produced by non rabbit-derived strain Enterococcus faecium EF55 in relation with microbiota and selected parameters in broiler rabbits

Abstract— Ent55 is produced by poultry strain Enterococcus faecium EF55. It is substance which can be allotted to Class II enterocins; thermo-stable, small peptide. Because producer strain has shown beneficial effect in poultry and broiler rabbits as well, we decided to apply Ent55 in broiler rabbit husbandry. Ent55 showed antimicrobial activity in broiler rabbits by reduction of staphylococci, Clostridiae, pseudomonads and coliforms. Its beneficial effect was demonstrated by stimulation of phagocytic activity as well as by reduction of Eimeria spp. oocysts. GPx values were lower; it means, no oxidative stress was evoked. Moreover, it has not negative influence on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Our results indicated that enterocin produced by not-autochtonous strain can also have protective and beneficial effect in broiler rabbits.

Keywords Enterocin, effect, microbiota, immunity, rabbit.

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Assessment of Commonly Used Pesticides in the Ground Water of the Shallow Aquifer Systems in Jericho and Jeftlik areas/ Lower Jordan Valley, Occupied Palestinian Territories

Abstract One of the most important pollutants that may reach the groundwater through agricultural return flow combined with abuse and ignorance is pesticides. This study focuses on the examination of the concentration of three pesticides: Abamectin, Imidacloprid, and ß-Cyfluthrin, all of which have been used in large quantities in the Lower Jordan Valley (LJV) for the last three decades. Twenty five groundwater samples were collected from water boreholes where water is abstracted from two phreatic aquifer systems which are the Plio-Plistocene aquifer system in Jericho and Lower Al Jeftlik areas and the Eocene carbonate aquifer system in the Middle of Al Jeftlik. The depth of the boreholes in both aquifer system ranges between 80 and 120 m. Water samples were analyzed for Abamectin, Imidacloprid, and ß-Cyfluthrin using the HPLC-UV method. These samples represent two main agricultural locations (Jericho, and the Al Jeftlik). Of the 25 wells sampled, Abamectin was detected in 11 wells in concentrations ranging between 1.24 ppb and 81.71ppb. Imidacloprid was detected in 24 wells in concentrations ranging between 1.60ppb and 325.0ppb. Finally, ß-Cyfluthrin was detected in 7 wells in concentrations ranging between 1.10 and 24.46ppb.

Aquifer lithology, groundwater flow directions, type of agricultural activity are major factors in controlling pesticide concentrations in groundwater. The highest values were measured where the aquifer consists of gravel and sand sediments, combined with intensive agricultural activities, followed by sand-silt aquifer. The lowest concentrations were found in boreholes where carbonate aquifer is the main source of water which indicates that other source of water flow into the system. The results of this study demonstrate that these pesticides are used heavily and in an improper way in the lower Jordan Valley, increasing the risk of adverse environmental and public health effects. Much attention should be given to addressing the potential problem of environmental and groundwater contamination by these pesticides.

Keywords Shallow Aquifer, Jericho area, Pesticide, Abamectin, Imidacloprid, ß-Cyfluthrin, Jericho.

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Effects of Feeding Whole Cottonseed, Cotton Seed Cake and Guizotia abyssinica (Noug seed) cake on Blood Serum Parameters of Growing Arsi- Bale Male Goats

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effect of feeding whole cotton seed, of Gossipium hirustum spp (WCS), cottonseed cake (CSC) and noug seed cake (NSC) on blood serum parameters of growing male goats. Twenty four Arsi-Bale growing male goats of 6-12 months of age were assigned at random to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were; (T1) local grass hay only (control), (T2) control +20% WCS, (T3) control+30% CSC all amount on total daily DMI basis and (T4) control + recommended level noug seed cake(50% wheat bran (WB) and 49% NSC). Blood samples were collected in 10ml vactainer tube by jugular vein puncture every 30, 60 and 90 days of the experimental days and were allowed to clot at room temperature and centrifuged for 15minutesat 3000 rpm. The separated serum samples were stored in a deep freezer at -20oC until they were analyzed. Te samples were analyzed for serum parameters: albumin, total protein, glucose, urea nitrogen, creatinine and alkaline phosphate Significant (P<0.05) difference between treatments was observed in the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphate and albumin. Higher levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were observed for T4 while higher alkaline phosphate was observed for T3 and higher albumin was observed for T2. However, no significant (P>0.05) difference between treatments were observed in the levels of total serum protein and glucose. Moreover, no visible clinical sign of gossypol toxicity was observed on the experimental goats fed WCS and CSC during the 90 days of the experimental period. Hence, it was concluded that supplementation of growing male goat diets with recommended levels of NSC,20 and 30% WCS and CSC respectively have no adverse effect on blood serum parameters of growing male goats.

Keywords blood serum parameters, cotton seed cake, goats, noug seed cake, whole cottonseed.

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Study of natural fibers from waste from sponge gourd, peach palm tree and papaya pseudstem

Abstract Lignocellulosic wastes from agro-industry are usually discarded, despite their technical potential for use to reinforce composites. Because of increasing environmental concerns, scientific interest is growing to characterize fiber residues from peach palm tree trunks, papaya tree trunks and sponge gourds. The peach palm residues were obtained from the portion of the trunk not suitable for hearts of palm, while the papaya trunk residues were obtained from trees cut down after three years of fruit production and the sponge gourd waste material came from leftover gourds not suitable for making bath sponges. The materials were characterized regarding moisture content, density, ash content, lignin and holocellulose content, and soluble content, and were submitted to thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, mechanic property and morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy. The moisture, extractives and ash contents of the papaya pseudsterm and peach palm wastes were very near each other. The sponge gourd fibers had the highest concentrations of α-cellulose and hemicellulose and lowest levels of extractable soluble, and ash. The characterization results show that these waste materials are comparable with other agro-industrial residues described in the literature for use in making composites, so they have good potential for use as polymer reinforcement.

Keywords lignocellulosic fibers, peach palm tree, papaya pseudstem, sponge gourd.

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Sunday, 5 February 2017

Agriculture Journal: January 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-1, January 2017

Production and Application of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria as Biofertilizer: Field Trial at Maize Field, Uchalan, Burdwan District, West Bengal

Abstract Soil microorganism plays an important role in regulating the levels of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur at the rhizosphere. Solubilization of macronutrient is an important aspect in plant growth and development research. Phosphorus is one of the vital nutrient required for optimum growth of plant. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) plays an important role in increasing the phosphate uptake by the plants. Pikovskaya medium containing TCP or tricalcium phosphate helps in isolation of PSB from soil sample. Isolated strains were tested and screened by Halo zone formation and pH test. The selected strains showing marked decrease in pH and clear zone formation was selected for field trial. The objective of this study was to ascertain that PSBs isolated from the soil sample can be used as biofertilizer. Application of PSBs with a carrier mixed with maize seeds in the field of study and compared against a control field and against commercially available fertilizer showed that PSBs can improve the quality of soil and in turn improved the growth and development of the plants.

Keywords Biofertilizer, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria, chemical fertilizer, plant growth, soil fertility, field trial.

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Dissipation Pattern of carbendazim and cypermethrin on Curry Leaf

Abstract Field experiments were conducted during kharif 2014 and 2015 with curry leaf variety Suwasini to study the dissipation pattern of carbendazim 50 EC at 500 g a.i. ha-1 and cypermethrin 10 % EC @ 50 g a i/ha (550 ml/ha) 1 by giving two sprays first at vegetative stage and second 10 days later. The leaf samples collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 45th day after second spray and soil samples at 45th day for residue analysis showed initial deposits of carbendazim 16.00 mg kg-1 and Cypermetrin 13.09 mg kg-1 which ,dissipated to 0.04 mg kg -1 and 0. 28 mg kg – 1 respectively. The residues reached to Below Determination Level (BDL) at 20 and 10 days, respectively. As there were no pesticide recommendations and MRLs fixed for any of the pesticide in curry leaf, the day at which residues reached BDL can be suggested as the safe harvest period for curry leaf.

Keywords Dissipation pattern, , curry leaf, BDL, curry leaf.

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Nutritional Diagnosis of "Hass" Avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) Soil Fertility and Water Quality, In Tepoztlán, Morelos

Abstract In recent years, the avocado has become an important fruit species in Mexico, where it is distributed in six states, among which there is the state of Morelos. For the study, two agrohabitats with eight-year-old avocado orchards located in Tepoztlán, Morelos were selected. Soil fertility of the orchards was evaluated, as well as the quality of irrigation water, and the nutritional state of the leaves; sufficiency ranges were calculated, and the Deviation from Optimum Percentage method was used to interpret the results. Soils and the quality of irrigation water showed different chemical characteristics that had an influence on nutrient concentration in avocado leaves. The Deviation from Optimum Percentage (DOP) method allowed us to identify requirements of N, Zn, Mn, Fe and B in agrohabitat one, and deficiencies of P, K, Ca, S, Zn and Mn in agrohabitat two, which must be taken into account to implement a fertilization program in the studied orchards.

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Biotransformation of Panax notoginseng by fungi

Abstract Roots of Panax notoginseng were fermented with 30 fungi respectively. Almost one-third of the products showed increasing antibacterial activity. All products could inhibit GST-CDC25 phosphatase as a potential antitumor agent. HPLC profiles proved that components of unfermented P. notoginseng and fermented P. notoginseng have obviously changes.

Keywords Panax notoginseng, biotransformation, antibacterial activity, antitumor activity.

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Prediction of Soil Total Nitrogen Content using Spectraradiometer and GIS in southern Iraq

Abstract In this study, soil samples were collected from two locations: Samawa and Rumetha in southern Iraq. The samples from each location were split into two datasets: calibration set and validation set. VNIR reflectance (350-2500 nm) and GIS-Kriging were used in combination with Partial Least Square (PLS) to predict total N. only two regions reported higher determination coefficient R2 and lower Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) than the other wavelength regions. PLS calibration models yielded an R2 of 0.96 and 0.97 for Rumetha and 0.87 and 0.94 for Samawa location in bands at 500-600 and 800-1000 nm, respectively. The potential of VNIR-based and GIS-Kriging models to predict new unknown soil samples were assessed by using validation datasets from both studied locations. The cross-validation of GIS-Kriging models were unsatisfactory predicted with an Q2 of 0.28 between laboratory-measured and predicted total N values for Rumetha and 0.43 for Samawa location. While VNIR- based validation models achieved highly predictive power with an R2v of 0.84 between laboratory-measured and predicted total N values for Rumetha and 0.85 for Samawa location. These results reveal extremely decreasing in model predictive ability when shifting from VNIR Spectroscopy method to GIS-Kriging.

Keywords GIS, Kriging, Spectroradiometer, Total Nitrogen.

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Prevalence and predictors of mental health among farmworkers in Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey

Abstract

Background: Mental health problems represent a major component of the global burden of disease. The primary objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of psychological wellbeing among farmworkers and to evaluate their mental health services need for in rural primary health care settings.

Methods: The study sample comprised 1855 farmworkers (918 women, and 937 men) who were selected using probability cluster sampling method at 95% confidence interval (87.6 % response rate). The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and socio-demographic information form were used to data collection.

Results: The overall prevalence of mental health problems was 31.5%; the prevalence among women was 1.4 times that of men (35%, females; 28.2%, males). Logistic regression analyses revealed that poor general health, as well as presence of chronic diseases and exposure to traumatic life events predicted mental ill health among both sex. Poor economic situation, being seasonal migrant farmworker, and pesticide exposure history affected male mental health problems; while type of settlement, history of having disabled child at birth, and not having a family physician were significant predictors of female mental ill health (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for systematic development of community-based mental health services in conjunction with rural primary health care center and an integrated approach to health care of farmworkers. These include screening, early identification and treatment of mental health problems, development of non-communicable disease (NCD) control program, maternal health services and urgent measures to improve farmworkers’ work safety and pesticide applications.

Key words: Farmworkers, Psychological health, Predictors, General Health Questionnaire -12.

Disclosures: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Funding: This study was funded by a grant from Southeastern Anatolia Project Regional Development Administration

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Effect of enhanced solar UVB (280-320nm) radiation on secondary pigment synthesis in some plants

Abstract The investigation was carried out to find out whether enhanced UVB radiation increases the synthesis of secondary metabolites in some plants grown under tropical region. Like tropical plant temperate plant also grown successfully in the tropical region. Tropical plants are thought to have an inherent resistance to abiotic stress. The abiotic stress that enhances the ability of the plant by increasing the content of the secondary bioactive components. While the plants exposed to enhanced UVB radiation in the field condition, the synthesis of secondary pigments like flavonoids and anthocyanin level varied among species. In radish and beet- root the synthesis of flavonoid and anthocyanin the content was increased, whereas, in the onion and carrot, the level of synthesis of secondary pigment was less. But compared to ambient plants the UVB the irradiated the plant has more secondary pigment. So it proves that the UVB radiation increases the synthesis of secondary pigment content by activating the defence mechanism and to protect plants against UVB damage.

Keywords Anthocyanin, UV-B radiation, Carrot, Radish, Beetroot, Onion, Seconary pigment.

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Investigation of carbonisation of wheat stems from central Europe during slow pyrolysis at different temperatures

Abstract Slow pyrolysis of wheat stems from south-west Thuringia in Central Germany favours the interaction of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. As a result, after low pyrolysis temperatures of 600 °C, 800 °C or 1000 °C crystallinity of bio-carbon is pronounced. As shown by Raman spectroscopy, with increasing pyrolysis temperature, the intensity ratio ID/IG of D band to G band increases. This gives evidence of a growing amount of aromatic graphitic rings with a lot of disorder in the carbonaceous biogenetic material. With increasing pyrolysis temperature more 6-fold, still defective carbon rings form out of the amorphous sp2-C-C matrix. High resolution transmission electron microscopy identifies parallel layers of crystalline carbon that are oriented in bands after pyrolysis at 800 °C. This degree of order after a relatively low pyrolysis temperature is excellent. For many applications, regulated and oriented crystallinity is essential. Steering the orientation and fraction of crystalline bio-carbon could be favourable for producing carbon fibres of higher quality from suitable biomass. By regulating the composition of lignin to cellulose, hemicelluose or other substances, the bio-carbon crystallinity could be adjusted.

Keywords carbonation, wheat stems, pyrolysis, Central Europe.

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The CarboZALF-D manipulation experiment – experimental design and SOC patterns

Abstract The CarboZALF-D manipulation experiment – experimental design and SOC patterns

Soil erosion by water or tillage is an essential landscape-shaping factor with feedbacks to the carbon cycle. To study C dynamics and C balances as a function of soil erosion we set up a manipulation experiment at field scale, called “CarboZALF-D”. A defined amount of topsoil material was removed from an eroded Luvisol towards a Colluvic Regosol and reactive, clay-enriched subsoil material was blended into the topsoil of the eroded Luvisol. By doing so we induced transient states for C cycling, net fluxes of CO2 and the C balance. The overall aim of our experiment is to get reliable findings to answer the question: Does soil erosion causes a CO2 source or sink in arable landscapes? In this paper the concept, implementation, and preliminary results of the manipulation experiment are described.

Keywords bulk density, carbon stock, manipulation experiment, simulated erosion, SOC pattern.

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Evaluation of curryleaf Farmgate Samples for Pesticide Residues

Abstract Seventy five curry leaf samples from curry leaf grown farms in Guntur, Ananthapur and Medak districts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India were analysed for pesticide residues by LCMS/MS. Recovery studies were performed at 0.025 0.05 and 0.5 mg kg -1 fortification levels of each compound and the recoveries obtained ranged from 81.0 % to 119.0 % with relative standard deviations lower than 19.1 %.The method showed good linearity over the assessed range 0.01–1.0 mg kg-1with correlation coefficient of 0.999 and the detection and quantification limits for the pesticides studied varied from 0.001mg Kg-1and 0.05 mg Kg-1, respectively. The samples were detected with number of compounds of different groups dominated by Organo Phosphates (29.6%) followed by Synthetic Pyrethroids (20.69%), Fungicides (13.79%), Neo nicotinoids (10.34%), Herbicides(6.90%) and Carbamates(3.45%).The residue levels ranged from 37.78 mg Kg-1 to 0.05 mg Kg-1.It is therefore necessary to conduct extensive monitoring studies on pesticide usage pattern on curry leaf in different agro-climatic regions of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana to know the exact status of pesticide contamination at farm gate level.

Keywords Curryleaf, farmgate, pesticide residues, quantification.

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Evaluation of characteristics of Simplicillium lanosoniveum on pathogenicity to aphids and in vitro antifungal potency against plant pathogenic fungi

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the aphidicidal and antifungal activities of Simplicillium lanosoniveum in laboratory conditions. S. lanosoniveum isolate Cs0701 shown to be pathogenic to the aphids, Aphis gossypii, Ceratovacuna lanigera and Hysteroneura setariae. The data showed that isolate Cs0701 exudates had greater mycelial growth-inhibiting effects on plant pathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Alternaria brassicicola and Rhizoctonia solani, in cellophane paper antibiosis test. In addition, mycelial growth of Cochliobolus miyabeanus, Curvularia lunata and Fusarium sp. were partially inhibited by isolate Cs0701 exudates. The culture filtrates of isolate Cs0701 were screened for their antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungi. The results revealed that A. brassicicola, Cochliobolus miyabeanus and Curvularia lunata conidial germination was inhibited by isolate Cs0701. The culture filtrate was also able to inhibit conidial germination of jasmine orange (Murraya paniculata) powdery mildew, Oidium murrayae. However, plant host range tests showed that isolate Cs0701 was not pathogenic to Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Lemma perpusilla and Glycine max. Taken together, these findings provide convincing experimental evidence that S. lanosoniveum isolate Cs0701 is biologically active against both aphids and plant pathogenic fungi including powdery mildew. Pot and field trials are necessary to confirm efficacy of S. lanosoniveum against aphids and plant pathogenic fungi.

Keywords biological control agent, Simplicillium lanosoniveum, aphidicidal activity, antifungal activity.

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Chalkbrood: pathogenesis and the interaction with honeybee defenses

Abstract— There are numerous threats that affect bee populations worldwide such as exposure to pesticides; genetic diversity, poor nutrition and the impact of pathogens. Between them, Ascosphaera apis is the etiological agent of chalkbrood disease that affects honeybees brood. To understand the biology of this pathogen, we revised the phylogeny, morphology, and sexual reproduction. The pathogenesis, closely related to the factors that affect the virulence the A. apis and their interactions with the host, are determinant at moment of developing chalkbood. The honeybee develops several strategies to defend themselves from these pathogens. First, the individual immunity mechanisms such us perithrophic membrane, the microbiota of midgut larvae and the humoral and cellular immunity are the first defense barriers against A. apis. Later, other mechanisms would appear, related to the social immunity, such as their social organization, the polyandry, the hygienic behavior and the social fever, that change the environmental conditions in the bee colony reducing A. apis viability. However, other pathogens such as Nosema spp, Varroa destructor, several viruses, and the presence of pesticides affect the sanitary status of the honeybee allowing the fungus to develop easily. Finally, we describe to our knowledge, the best three natural alternatives that could be studied in order to employ them in field trails.

Keywords— chalkbrood, epidemiology, honeybees, host´s resistance, pathogen´s virulence.

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Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Waste Processing to Obtain Chitin, Protein, and Astaxanthin-Enriched Extract

Abstract - Blue crab’ waste is a good source of valuable substances although only few studies are related to its use, especially concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis and recovery of compounds such as astaxanthin. Besides, the reuse of crab waste may reduce environmental pollution, add value to this residue and promote a social responsibility in several small fishery communities. Therefore, this study aimed to recover protein, chitin, and astaxanthin from blue crab waste by means of enzymatic hydrolysis with alcalase and bromelain. High hydrolysis efficiency, defined by hydrolysis degree (DH), was achieved with 3% alcalase (E/S), recovering 30% of protein in 120 minutes reaction. The highest extraction yield (3.1 ± 0.4% - w/w) and astaxanthin content (97.7 ± 14.3% μgastaxanthin/gresidue) were from demineralized sample under acid process (DERS), before carotenoid recovery. Thermogravimetric analysis of the sample with enzymatic deproteinization presented higher thermal stability and mass loss. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the blue crab processing waste proved to be efficient for the production of protein hydrolysates, mostly using 3% of alcalase enzyme related to the substrate (E/S). Additionally, it was possible to obtain chitin and astaxanthin-enriched extract from the hydrolyzed residue with enzymes, similar to what obtained through an alkaline deproteinization process and, consequently, promote improvements in the blue crab waste environmental management.

Keywords - Blue crab waste, Alcalase, Astaxanthin, Chitin, Protein.

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Experimental and Modeling Column Study of Phosphorus Removal by Permeable Reactive Materials

Abstract This study evaluates the performance of permeable reactive materials for phosphorus removal from water by experimental and model development. A one dimensional solute transport model that describes adsorption process in porous media by mass transfer equation and surface area reduction was developed. Validity of the model was evaluated using several data sets from batch and column experiments. The marble dust, standard sand and volcanic ash were utilized as permeable reactive barriers and porous materials inside packed columns in this research. It was found that the calcium (Ca) content was the most important characteristic of the permeable reactive materials and a factor determining their phosphorus removal efficiency. A high Ca content material showed higher removal capacity of phosphorus. The results of this study demonstrated that the marble dust sorbent has a high efficiency to remove phosphorus from aqueous solution. Comparing the performances of three packed columns filled up with different combinations of the three investigated materials, the differences in permeability played an important role in the treatment residence time and its ensuing effect on the removal efficiencies of phosphorus from water. A combination of 70% marble dust and 30% volcanic ash (as porous packed layers in one column) made a reasonable compromise between high steady phosphorus removal efficiency (~80%) and longevity (over 180 days). A suggestion/recommendation in conclusion was proposed based on these results.

Keywords column experiment, marble dust, phosphorus, reactive material, solute transport model.

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Study of Population Density Luffa Cylindrical at University of Baghdad

Abstract A study was conducted to determine the population density of the Leaves diggers liriomyzasativae in the Plant Protection Department, college of Agriculture - University of Baghdad, for the period from 01/02/2015 to 15/05/2015.

The study results showed that the highest density of hoof liriomyzasativae 2.7 digger / Leave dated 05/08/2015 and the lowest was 0.3 hoof /leave dated 01/02/2015, and the results showed the presence of three peaks of the pest Nilai starting from 27/2 and ends 3/4. It notes the fluctuation of population density of the hoof between the rise and fall, which dates back to the environmental conditions and the enemies of vital accompaniment of the pest, and the results showed the presence of the enemy's vital Neochrysocharisformosa (Westwood) (Eulophidae: Hymenoptera).

Keywords University of Baghdad, Population density, Leaves diggers liriomyzasativae, Plant Protection.

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Molecular mechanisms regulating storage root formation in plants

Abstract Storage roots are important for the growth and development in plants because they provide nutrients, water, and energy storage. Storage roots are also modulating growth direction, disease resistance, and root formation at the cellular and molecular level through interactions of genes and gene networks. However, molecular mechanisms regulating storage root formation in plants are not fully understood. In this review, we have overviewed transcriptional regulation of storage root formation, proteomic regulation of storage root formation, ethylene regulation of storage root formation, auxin regulation of storage root formation, gene expression regulation of storage root formation, and metabolism regulation of storage root formation. We have reviewed the basic regulatory principles of storage root formation from the network of genomics to proteomics and metabolism in plants that will be valuable to research work in storage root growth and development regulation at the molecular level.

Keywords Gene expression, post-transcriptional gene silencing, storage root development.

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Evaluation of Ornamental Coleus for Landscaping of Shady Areas

Abstract There is a strong desire amongst people to have colour in the shady areas of their landscapes. But shade-loving plants generally are not richly or brightly coloured. Ornamental coleus is an inconspicuous flower bearing ornamental plants which can act as a colorful option for shady landscape. Ornamental coleus is a promising ornamental foliage plant which provides a bold texture and a thick density for shady landscape. With this background, collection, conservation and evaluation of different ornamental coleus types / varieties carried out at ICAR-Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Goa. Twenty four different types / varieties of ornamental coleus have been collected, maintained and evaluated for their suitability for landscape use. Significant differences were observed among different coleus types / varieties for various morphological and quality parameters. Plant height , number of leaves, number of branches, Stem girth, Length of leaf with petiole, Petiole length, leaf width, Length of leaf without petiole varied from 42.00 cm (Juicy Lucy) -89.67 cm (Eruption), 24.89 (Gay Delight) -72.00 (Trailing Queen), 3.00 (Mahogany Giant) -8.67 (Eruption), 0.563 cm (Blusher) - 0.817 cm (Eruption), 11.03 cm (Tilt a Whirl) - 18.83cm (Grape expectations), 2.07 cm (Pistachio Nightmare) - 6.00 cm (Eruption), 5.50 cm(Trailing Queen)-10.83 cm(Grape expectations), 8.33cm(Tilt a Whirl) - 14.78 cm (Grape expectations) respectively. Different ornamental coleus used in the present study exhibited an incredible range of diversity for various traits and it could be recommended to function for various purposes in landscaping like beds, borders, hedges, planters, hanging baskets, vertical gardens or containers.

Keywords Coleus, Colour, Shade, Landscaping, Purpose.

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Removal of 137Cs from contaminated soil using pilot electrokinetic decontamination equipment

AbstractThe removal efficiencies of 137Cs for 10 days were 50-70%. The removal efficiencies according to the elapsed time after 10 days were reduced. When an electric current density of 25-75 mA/cm2, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid as electrolyte, a 0.5-2.0 cm/min hydraulic conductivity of soil were applied, respectively, the time required for the removal efficiency of 137Cs to reach 80% was 20-30 days. For improving removal efficiency of 137Cs from contaminated soil, it is necessary to increase an electric current density using sulfuric acid as an electrolyte and to decrease hydraulic conductivity of soil in the soil cell.

KeywordsDecontamination, Electrokinetic equipment, 137Cs, Soil, Removal Efficiency.

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Example of management of water resources for agricultural irrigation

Abstract Water is a natural resource vital to life, economic development and social welfare. The National Water Plan resulting from the transposition of the Water Framework Directive, has as an objective: benefit the existing irrigated, with the aim of making more efficient use of water, in particular, with regard to reducing losses, storage, transport and distribution of water, its application in soil and the rationalization of consumption. [1]. Portugal, in Aveiro, between Nazaré and Alcobaça council, has an area with a simple irrigation system for irrigation, called Cela hydro-agricultural profit.

Keywords irrigation, water, agriculture, Portugal, management.

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Production arrowroot depending on the size of the rhizome and substrate in Campo Grande –MS, Brazil

Abstract The arrowroot starch is much appreciated in the preparation of desserts, breads, cookies and cakes. However the production of starch by the commercial varieties is still made in an amateur way without proper management. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in factorial 3 (rhizomes sizes) x 2 (substrates). The three rhizome sizes arrowroot, were classified as small (≤ 15.0 g), medium (≥ 15.01 and ≤ 30.0) and big (≥ 30.01 g) according to their weights. We evaluated: height collect from the region to the apex of the leaf, stem diameter at the collar region survival percentage of rhizomes, shoot dry weight, root dry mass, average number of seedlings per rhizome and calculated the index quality seedlings Dickson. There were no differences in the interaction between plants x substrate. However the size of rhizomes influenced the quality of the seedlings, and the big (≥ 30.01 g) rhizomes was what produced seedlings with the best quality.

KeywordsMarantha arundinacea L., propagation, starch, ground.

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Reducing Postharvest Softening of Papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) by using an aqueous 1-Methylcyclopropene Application

Abstract The shelf life of ‘Maradol’ papaya fruit (Carica papaya) harvested at one-quarter stage maturity (yellow-orange color in 25% of fruit surface) and treated with aqueous 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was evaluated. The effects of immersion time (30 or 60 seconds) and dose response (50 or 300 ng∙kg-1) on the quality of papaya fruit stored for 12 days at 20 ± 2 °C and 85 ± 5% RH were studied. After 3 days, the control and fruit treated with 50 ng∙kg-1 1-MCP for 30 seconds lost 82% and 72% of the initial firmness, respectively. A 1-MCP concentration of 300 ng∙kg-1 for 30 or 60 seconds inhibited softening and slowed skin color change for 12 days. The pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids concentration ranged from 5.3-5.7, 0.06-0.12 % and 10-12 %, respectively. The shelf life of papaya was extended up to 3 days in fruit treated with 50 ng∙kg-1 1-MCP for either 30 or 60 seconds of immersion.

Keywords 1-MCP dipping treatment, color change, Carica papaya, ripening.

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Sunday, 1 January 2017

Agriculture Journal: IJOEAR: December 2016

Agriculture Journal: Published its volume-2, issue-11, November 2016 with AD Publications

Microbiological and Physicochemical Assessment of Poultry Soil Samples in Akure Metropolis, Nigeria

Abstract Human activities such as animal production in many parts of the world, still impact negatively on the environment and biodiversity. This study was carried out to assess the microbiological and physicochemical parameters of poultry soil samples. Soil samples were collected from different poultry in Akure metropolis and soil samples from Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) environment as control. Microbiological and physicochemical analyses were carried out using standard methods. The mean total viable bacterial count of poultry soil ranged from 9.02±0.511×105cfu/g in sample site A to 11.2±0.021×105cfu/g in sample site B and there were significant difference (p<0.05) between the bacterial count of poultry soil and control, mean highest fungal load is 6.05±0.301× 103sfu/g. Bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila ,Bacilllus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecium. Escherichia coli had the highest occurrence of 23.08% while Aeromonas hydrophila had the lowest occurrence of 5.13%. Fungi isolated were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates and Saccharomyces species. Aspergillus niger 46.67% had the highest occurrence while Saccharomyces species had the lowest occurrence of 13.33%. Physiochemical analysis showed that poultry soil had mean pH, temperature and Organic Carbon of 7.92±0.34, 34±0.04oC and 14.88±0.56% respectively, Organic Matter is 5.50±0.61%, Nitrogen 1.27±0.03 mg/g, Phosphorus58.92±0.01 mg/g, Potassium55.48±0.23 mg/g, Sodium 41.77±0.91mg/g, Calcium 28.70±0.24mg/g, Magnesium 20.65±0.32 mg/g and Cation exchange capacity146.60±0.11%. The results obtained calls for proper discharge of poultry waste into the environment to prevent transmission of diseases by water borne pathogens.

Keywords Akure, Microbiological, Physicochemical, poultry, soil.

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Limiting factors for pasture and cereal production in marginal soils of the southwestern Pampas in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Abstract Typical soils of Southwestern Buenos Aires Province were evaluated to determine quality and capability for cereal and forage production having in mind potential improvements due to amendment with organic residual from agroindustrial wastes process. Studied soils from Mollisol order were, Argiudoll and Argiustol suborder, of marginal area of Pampa Argentina. The organic matter content of those soils corresponded to weakly humic soils which shows the transition from the Pampas zone to the semi-arid zone and indicates a major limiting factor. Granulometric analyses were similar, with a sandy loam texture for the Tres Arroyos soil and a borderline sandy silt loam for the Cabildo soil. Anycase the results were below the limit that indicates salinity problems. Low availability of essential micronutrient like Copper and Molibdenum were another limiting factor of the Tres Arroyos soil, where the cultivation of winter grains, such as wheat and barley is very important for regional economy. The availability of the micronutrients Zn and Cu are strongly dependent on the soil pH; therefore, the more alkaline the conditions (such as for the Cabildo soil), as a limiting factor mainly for cereals sensitive to Cinc deficiencies like maize and sorghum. Soils from this marginal areas of the Pampas (Argentina), could be improved with respect to the factors that limit soil quality and productivity.

Keywords Soil, properties, limiting factors, degradation.

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Effect of Processing and Storage on the Content of Selected Antioxidants and Quality Parameters in Convection and Freeze-dried Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.)

Abstract Fresh and dried by convection and lyophilisation bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) were examined for content of water, vitamin C, vitamin E, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols and level of antioxidant activity against the DPPH radical. Both products were analyzed immediately after drying and after 4, 8 and 12 months of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC and 20 ± 2 ºC. Fresh fruit had a dry matter content of 14.74%, 100 g of which contained 208 mg vitamin C; 36.4 mg vitamin E; 2064 mg anthocyanins; and 5000 mg polyphenols, with antioxidant activity of 1750 µM Trolox eq/1 g dry matter. After 12 months’ storage, retention rates in products dried by convection and sublimation were respectively: vitamin C 38–47% and 49–53%; vitamin E 73–77% and 76–82%; anthocyanins 47–54% and 55–59%; polyphenols 68–74% and 72–74%; and antioxidant activity 63–70% and 73–77%, the lower value referring to storage at room temperature and the higher to chilled storage. There were no effect of storage temperature on rehydration of both products. Storage led to a significant increase in the proportion of red and yellow colors in both types of dried product compared to the raw material and product after drying.

Keywords antioxidants, bilberry, convection drying, freeze-drying, storage, quality.

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Short Communication: Natural Prophylaxis to the Control of Swine Coccidiosis

Abstract Coccidiosis swine causes high economic loss, and its prophylaxis is usually performed by the use of chemical drugs. However, these chemical drugs are not allowed in agroecological, organic or biological dynamic systems of production. Additionally, there are concerns about pharmacological resistance and contamination by the presence of chemical residues in the environment and at the food of animal origin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the weight gain and the prevalence of coccidia in piglets submitted to the following treatments: alcoholic extract of propolis 30% (AEP), chemical treatment toltrazuril (CTT), negative control with grain alcohol (NCA) and negative control without treatment (NCT). By means of the individual weights and the number of coccidia at the faeces, it was monitored 216 piglets from commercial farms. Under the conditions of this study none therapeutic intervention provided benefits for weight gain and prevalence of coccidia. Thus, by making it possible the minimization of chemical drug use, these results allow us to suggest the laboratory periodic monitoring as a prophylactic control method for swine coccidiosis.

Keywords Isospora suis, laboratory monitoring, organic production, piglets, propolis.

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The Effects of Using Magnetic Treatment Brackish Water in Irrigation on the Yield Medical Herbs “Origanum Vulgare” Pilot Project: AL-Uja Area/Lower Jordan Valley-West Bank

Abstract Over abstraction of groundwater and limitation of natural recharge in the Lower Jordan Valley are causing an increase in groundwater salinity. The high demand for medicine herbs at international market attracted Palestinian farmers to grow medicine herbs including Oregano. Pilot project was carried out under greenhouse condition where magnetize technology introduced for the first time in irrigation of Oregano to overcome salinity problem. Using of magnetized treated water caused an increase of about 26% in the yield. Positive significant different for the favorite of Oregano irrigated with magnetized water compared with controlled in term of major branches, water content, number of surviving seedling and chlorophyll content. A decrease in the number of clogged dripper was found under treated magnetized water compared with controlled condition.

Keywords Magnetized water, Oregano, Water salinity.

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The formation of Maize Foundation Inbred Lines: Analysis in Different Perspective

Abstract Maize breeding has made a greater contribution to the increases of maize yield. Maize foundation inbred lines play an irreplaceable role in maize breeding. The formation of foundation lines were the results of many factors, the key factors of which were accord with breeding trends, adapt to environment in much of region, and have appropriate representativeness for particular heterotic group. Foundation lines possess well structure of source and better yield stability, this contribute to their combinations with coordinated source-sink relationship and adapt to close planting. Foundation lines resist major stress factor and adapt to the cropping systems and cultural practices of main maize producing areas. And foundation lines concentrate numerous unique alleles of particular heterotic group, so they are easy to generate heterotic with lines from other heterotic group. For new foundation lines breeding, the existing foundation lines are preferred basic germplasm and cross breeding unites with pedigree selection is effective breeding method. Moreover, we give a integrate breeding method base on rapid advances in plant-breeding technology.

Keywords Maize, Foundation inbred lines, China, formation.

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A TaqMan-based Quantitative RT-PCR Method for Detection of Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus in Hawthorns

Abstract—ACLSV is one of the major fruit viruses and can cause severe diseases in species of family Rosaceae. Previous RT-PCR methods are available to detect ACLSV in hawthorn samples, but not to evaluate the infected level of ACLSV. In this study, a TaqMan-based quantitative RT-PCR detection method targeting CP gene of ACLSV was first established and the sensitivity and reproducibility were investigated. The results indicated that this standard curve between log of plasmid DNA concentration versus the cycle threshold (Ct) value generated a linear fit with a linear correlation (R2) of 0.99 and the PCR efficiency was more than 90%. The quantitative RT-PCR method was high sensitive and able to detect 6.9 × 102 copies·μL-1 of ACLSV RNA. Compared with the conventional RT-PCR method, it was 100-fold sensitive in detection of ACLSV. In addition, different organs of hawthorn samples were examined using the quantitative RT-PCR repeatedly and the result revealed that the quantitative RT-PCR is not only an effective detection method, and can obtain an absolute quantitation for ACLSV.

KeywordsTaqMan, quantitative RT-PCR, ACLSV, detection, sensitive.

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The Calculation of Optimal Osmotic Dehydration Process Parameters for Mushrooms by Employing: A Firefly Algorithm

Abstract The Firefly Algorithm (FA) is employed to determine the optimal parameter settings in a case study of the osmotic dehydration process of mushrooms. In the case, the functional form of the dehydration model is established through a response surface technique and the resulting mathematical programming is formulated as a non-linear goal programming model. For optimization purposes, a computationally efficient, FA-driven method is used and the resulting optimal process parameters are shown to be superior to those from previous approaches.

Keywords Firefly Algorithm, Mushrooms, Non-linear Goal Programming, Process Parameter Optimization, Osmotic Dehydration.

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Impact of organic and conventional practices on, soil health and crop yield under tropical and subtropical environment of Bangladesh

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the improvement of soil fertility and crop yield using formulated organic fertilizers in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) from October 2008 to April 2015 and the test crop was tomato, eggplant, cabbage and cauliflower. The physicochemical properties, behavior and persistence of plant beneficial microorganisms including nitrogen fixing bacteria, (e.g. Rhizobium sp., Azotobacter sp.), phosphate solubilizing bacteria e.g. (Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas sp., Phosphobacteria), Aspergillus sp. and Trichoderma sp., in the amended/ non-amended block were evaluated each year. The soil beneficial microbial populations and health properties including pH, nitrogen content, organic matter, phosphorus, K, Ca, and S, increased significantly in the compost-amended soils compared to the conventional practices. The total nitrogen (N) content and the organic matter of compost amended soil were 215% and 200% higher respectively than that of conventional practices (CP). Furthermore, significant increase of available organic matter, N, P, & K was observed in the compost-amended soils compared to conventional and control block. Furthermore, microbial population showed significant linear correlations with the organic matter contents of the soils and yearly vegetables yield increased gradually and was reached to almost identical to conventional field within 5 years, implying that the soil amended with BIOFER compost increased the soil fertility, and vegetables yields. Thus, application of BAOFER compost at the rate of 15 t/ha/year was found adequate in improving the vegetable yields and soil health in open field cultivation under subtropical climatic conditions.

Keywords Organic; conventional; production practices; soil microorganisms; soil health; crop yield and tropical environment.

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Fabrication of Low Cost Automated Lime Colour Sorter

Abstract Among fruit crops lime has high demand in the world. There are varieties of products being made from limes at various stage of maturity. Colour is the vital parameter of maturity indication of most agricultural produces. Colour of lime produce varies from green to yellow. Although yellowish limes are preferred by some category of people and processers, for exporting purposes greenish limes are being used because of their longest shelf time. Thus, sorting based on its colour is crucial for consumer acceptability and also for further processing. Both greenish and yellowish limes are harvested together and sorted through post-harvest operation of colour sorting. This is often performed by manual labourers. The main limitation associated with hand sorting is less accuracy, as human evaluation may vary person to person. Therefore, automated grading system is becoming popular due to its superior speed, consistency, and accuracy. This paper discusses about a new approach to develop a lime colour sorter at a minimum price using TCS230 colour sensor. The identification of the colour is based on the frequency analysis of the output of TCS230 sensor. Arduino Uno was used to control overall process. Stepper motor was used to sort limes into two different classes. All the mechanical parts were designed through Auto CAD software. Fabricated sorter was tested at various environmental light intensities, the results shown there is no influences by the sexternal light.

Keywords Arduino Uno, Auto CAD, Colour sorting, Stepper motor, TCS230 colour sensor.

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Seasonal fluctuations of the airborne pollen in Guarda (Portugal)

Abstract Airborne pollen calendars are useful to estimate the flowering season of the different plants as well as to indicate the allergenic potential present in the atmosphere at a given time. In this study, a 1-year survey (from January 2013 to February 2014) is presented of the atmospheric concentration of pollen types in Guarda (Portugal), using a 7-day Hirst volumetric trap. The daily mean concentration of both the number of pollen grains and the main pollen season was determined as well as the bi-hourly variations. The highest airborne pollen concentration was found during early spring and early summer. Contrastingly, December was the month with the lowest pollen concentration. The major pollens sampled were Quercus, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Cupressaceae, Urticaceae, Apiaceae, Oleaceae and Polygonaceae. Some differences were found in the intradiurnal distribution patterns of the pollen types studied, with some taxa types being predominantly sampled in the morning (8:00-10:00 a.m.) while others were more evident in the late evening hours (8-10 p.m.). Finally, these results were compared with the forecast made by the Portuguese Aerobiology Network for the central region of Portugal, revealing some significant differences in the pollination periods.

Keywords Aerobiology, pollen season, bi-hourly distribution.

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Grain Yield and Some Quality Traits of Different Oat (Avena sativa L.) Genotypes

Abstract Oat cultivars should have both high yield potential and some quality criteria in accordance with using targets. Hence, grain yield and some quality traits of 25 oat genotypes grown in two consecutive years were studied. This study was carried out during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons in Yozgat, Turkey. Grain yield, plant height, hectolitre weight, thousand grain weight, great percentage and grain composition (protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), β-glucan and starch) were evaluated. Analysis of the combined data for two years showed significant genotypic differences for all traits. According to the average of two years, among the genotypes, grain yield varied from 2432.3 (2 numbered genotype) to 5650.2 (19 numbered genotype) kg ha-1, plant height from 76.3 to 128.3 cm, hectoliter weight from 41.5 to 52.3 kg, thousand grain weight from 24.5 to 41.3 g, groat percentage from 70.4 to 76.6 %, protein content from 11.1to 14.3 %, fat content from 5.86 to 8.47 %, ash ratio from 2.52 to 3.43 %, ADF content from 11.0 to 16.4 %, NDF content from 29.5 to 37.3 %, β-glucan content from 1.33 to 2.58 % and starch content ranged from 34.9 to 47.7 %. Grain yield was significantly and positively correlated with thousand grain weight (r = 0.253**) and neutral detergent fibre (r = 0.160**). However, correlations between grain yield with crude protein (r = -0.216**) and hectolitre weight (r = 0.246) were significantly and negative.

Keywords Oat, Genotype, Yield, Quality traits.

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Optimization Strategy of Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Development of Integrated Agricultural Systems (Simantri Program) in Bali

Abstract Simantri (Integrated Agricultural Systems) Program is an agricultural sector development program having been implemented by Bali Province Government since 2009. One of its objectives is to support the development of integrated and agribusiness-based agricultural diversification. Agribusiness sectors have significant differences if associated with the gap of mastering information and communication technology (ICT). The role of ICT optimally affects motivation for farmers to apply Simantri Program effectively in order to obtain the effects of increasing income and welfare. This study uses survey research design by examining a sample drawn from the existing population. The samples totaled 50 Farmers’ group union scattered in the regencies of Buleleng, Bangli, and Badung. The respondents were purposively determined i.e. three people per Farmers’ group union, so that the total respondents were 150 people. The main variables include usefulness, ease of use and attractiveness of ICT, attitudes towards ICT and usage optimization strategy. Strategies to optimize the utilization of ICT in Simantri Program are designed to add value to the level of success of the Simantri Programme today. Data analysis techniques in the design optimization of the use of ICT strategy model uses PLS-SEM model analysis with analysis tools SmartPLS version 3.0 M3 Strategies to optimize the utilization of ICT in the development of Simantri program in Bali can be done with the highest priority to optimize the level of satisfaction of users of ICT (user satisfaction), in this case the farmers’ group union members, then on the other hand take the steps oriented to impact the use of ICT itself, both individual impact (individual impact) and the impact of organizational (organizational impact), accompanied by an increase in the quality of information systems implemented (system quality).

Keywords optimization strategy, information technology and communications, Simantri Program.

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Biological and Toxicological Responses to Dioxins Exposures

Abstract After the II Word War, the chemical based industrial revolution generated a wide and global contamination due to the release in the environment of thousand of compounds without an adequate knowledge of their environmental biotransformation and their toxic effect on the living matter. Recently, it has been found that several of these compounds and/or their relative by-products are persistent environmental contaminants associated with undesirable long-term effects. At present many questions have to be clarified with particular reference to lipophilic polyhalogenated compounds, such as polychloro-dibenzo-dioxins (PCDD), polychloro-dibenzo-furans (PCDF) and polychloro-biphenyls (PCB). These compounds accumulate up the food chain and humans can reach relative high concentration in their body with a consequent risk for health. In this paper we discuss the some basic features of both biological and toxicological aspects related to the dioxins exposure.

Keywords Dioxins, AhR, Estrogens.

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Impact of Pesticides on Farmer’s Health of Western Odisha

Abstract Agriculture is the basic need of human being to survive. Increase in human population, increases the food production. Largest areas are under rice cultivation. Rice plants were prone to attack by insect and pest. So, for its survival use of pesticide is necessary, but this had lead risk behaviour among rice farmers. The study was based on the farmers of Bargarh and Sundargarh District of Odisha regarding pesticide usage condition .100 farmers were interviewed from both the district, using questionnaire methods from February to April 2015. A questionnaire survey on personal history regarding agricultural labour, pesticide use and health history was conducted. Descriptive statistics was used for analysis of quantitative data. The most frequently used pesticides included organophosphates, carbamates. 2-3 times pesticide was applied after 15 days, after 1 month and also before the production time. Demographic data shows 87 respondents were male farmers rests were female farmers out of 100 respondents. Only 85 respondents were using sprayer for spraying pesticides out of 100 but 36 respondents were only using protective covers. 12 farmers only follow the instruction given on the pesticide container. 33 respondents have the knowledge of colour coding present in the pesticide bottle. Health symptom showed less frequently, in farmers using protective covers. Out of 100 respondents 58 had skin contact, 12 respondents suffer from eye irritation, and 28 respondents feel drowsiness after strong smell of pesticides while 31 farmers suffer from headache. Major factors of pesticide poisoning are due to lack of attention to safety precautions and lack of training before using of pesticide. So, training programme is necessary to improve safer pesticide behaviours, create more awareness among the farmers and also introduction of using bio pesticide instead of using pesticide.

Keywords Farmer, Health Impact of Pesticides, Pesticide Exposure.

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Genetic Engineering Techniques in Fruit Science

Abstract Today, fruit science have well been established in world trade networks and sophisticated cultural and postharvest technologies that allow fruits to be enjoyed throughout much of the year, instead of mere weeks per year like our ancestors experienced. Especially modern biotechnological methods including genetic engineering technologies have been taken part in breeding strategies of fruit crops. Several biotechnological methods can be applied to plant to have better ones in the process of fruit breeding. Genetic engineering is a powerful tool for plant improvement and has the potential to allow the integration of desirable characteristics into existing genomes. Transformation technology developed a path to transfer important genes into plant genome for enhancing resistance against fungal, viral pathogens, other pests, drought, and salinity as well as silencing undesirable genes and improvement in nutrient acquisition. Different gene transfer techniques could be employed for fruit species. As well as direct and indirect transformation, modern genome editing methods recently have been used in plant science. In this review, we illustrated how to use these technologies in fruit science.

Keywords Agrocbacterium, direct gene transfer, CRISPR-CAS9, TALENs, ZFN.

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