Monday, 1 May 2017

Agriculture journal: IJOEAR: april 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-4, April 2017

Influence of amino acids, bleed grape and seaweed extract on vegetative growth, yield and its quality of fig

Abstract This study was conducted during the growing season of 2016 in a private orchard at AL-Abbasyia, Najaf Governorate on the local fig cv. Aswod Diala. The trees were spraying with amino acids (Amister and Gusto) at concentrations of 500 mg / L each other; Bleed of grape 100% and seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum at concentrations of 4% in single way or in combination at 15 march and 15 May, 2016. Results showed that spraying with amino acids, bleed grape and seaweed extract treatments and their interactions caused a significant increase percentage of leaf area, total chlorophyll, length of shoots, percentage of carbohydrate in branches, percentage of nitrogen in branches, percentage of carbohydrate / nitrogen in branches, percentage of nitrogen in leaves, percentage of phosphor in leaves, percentage of potassium in leaves, diameter of fruit, length of fruit, weight of fruit, percentage humidity of fruit, percentage dray matter of fruit, number of days to ripening, percentage of total soluble sold, fruit firmness and total yield of trees compared with control treatment . There were significant differences between above mentioned treatments. The Bleed of grape was more effective than amino acids(Amister and Gusto) and seaweed in that respect, but the combination of amino acids(Amister and Gusto), Bleed of grape and seaweed gave the best results in the treatment ( Am + Gu+ Bg + Bs ) for the season of experiment.

Keywords Amino acids, Bleed of grape, Seaweed extract, fig trees.

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Implementation of histopathological techniques and transmission electron microscopy for research of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine

Abstract— Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a fastidious bacterium, an important member of swine respiratory disease complex, like Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia, affecting the non-specific defense mechanism of the respiratory tract, high mucociliary system, predisposing the pigs to secondary pathogens. The objective of this study is to implement precise diagnostic techniques for identification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. 19 swine lungs fragments were collected from slaughterhouses and submitted by histopathological techniques. The presence of mucocellular exudate in 78.94% of the samples was observed in the bronchi and bronchioles, absence of eyelashes in 63.15% and lymphoid tissue hyperplasia associated with the bronchus in 42.10%. In pulmonary parenchyma, thickening of alveolar wall and interstitial bronchopneumonia were observed in 68.42%, hemorrhage in 47.36%, which 36.84% had hemosiderin and 15.78% lung consolidation. The presence of mycoplasma by the negative staining technique was identified in all samples, also the labeling of epitopes by colloidal gold immunostaining, using monoclonal antibody. In immunohistochemistry techniques and in situ hybridization, the labeled epitope and genome were observed confirming the presence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in the State of São Paulo. Therefore, the bronchial epithelium is the best tissue to collect the sample for an accurate diagnosis and the best method of diagnosis is the negative staining technique for screening and colloidal gold immunocytochemistry techniques to identify Mycoplasma species.

KeywordsMycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia, Immunochistochemistry and Hybridization.

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Quantifying the relative impact of physical and human factors on the viticultural expression of terroir

Abstract— This work assesses the relative importance of the terroirs factors: climate, soil and the relation source-sink, on the vegetative development, yield, berry composition and plant sanitary status.

The study was carried out between 2011 and 2014 in nine vineyards from six viticultural regions over the coast of Río de la Plata (Uruguay). The cultivar studied was Tannat, vertically trellised and north-south oriented. The year effect refers to climate, which was characterized using solar irradiation and three indices. The soil was characterized using pits and physico-chemical analyses, to determine three textural categories and to define soil depth and water availability. The source-sink relationship referred to four categories of relations between leaf surface and yield per vine. Statistical analyses included a Mixed Model with random effects to determine the relative importance of each factor to the total variability within the dataset.

Total yield per vine was explained by the source-sink relationship, the year and their interaction, both linked to the rainfall amount occurred during the maturation period. The synthesis of primary compounds in the berries was more dependent on the year and the interaction of soil and year with the source-sink relationship. Secondary compound concentrations in the berry depended mainly on the source-sink relationship and climate.

This study represents a significant advance to the knowledge of grapevine adaptation to the Río de la Plata terroirs, assigning a fundamental role to the vine grower actions. The growers can modulate grapevine balance as a function of the environment.

Keywords berry composition, soil, Tannat, terroir, yield.

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Land use and water quality in two sub-basins

Abstract The study evaluated the effects of land use and occupation in water quality in two sub-basins located in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The first sub-basin has 69.8% of native vegetation (natural) and the other has 54.1% of the land cultivated (anthropic). Samples were collected from April to December 2015, analyzing the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity, color, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and fecal coliforms. The natural sub-basin presented, significantly, better water quality. Total phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand and fecal coliforms exceeded the legal limits on the anthropic sub-basin. At this sub-basin correlation was found between cumulative rainfall of five days with turbidity and fecal coliforms, two days cumulative rainfall and total nitrogen, as well as between air and water temperature, affecting the dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity and fecal coliforms. In the natural sub-basin correlation was found between cumulative rainfall of two days and turbidity, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity.

Keywords agriculture, native vegetation, watershed.

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Mycotoxin production by entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus

Abstract Qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected mycotoxins has been performed in extracts of Conidiobolus coronatus pathogenic fungus cultivated under optimal and stress conditions. Furthermore, the analyses of these compounds in post-incubation filtrates were done. For identification purposes the analytical method allows identification and quantitation of selected mycotoxins including beauvericin , fumonisin B1, enniatin A and B and destruxin A based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Only beauvericin was detected in very low amounts in C. coronatus mycelium extract cultivated under optimal condition. In the extract of C. coronatus mycelium grown on LB 12.3 ± 0.1 µg/g of beauvericin was determined, while in the extract of C. coronatus mycelium grown on MM medium beauvericin content was lower and amounted 4.6 ± 0.1 µg/g. Also the presence of beauvericin was confirmed in postincubaction filtrate extract (MM). The content of this compound was 2.2 ± 0.1 µg/g. In other extracts beauvericin was not detected. In addition, in the tested extracts other compounds were not detected.

Keywords Mycotoxin Production, Conidiobolus, quantitative analysis.

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Effects of heavy metals' toxicity on plants and enhancement of plant defense mechanisms of Si-mediation “Review"

Abstract Today’s [e.g., “heavy metals (HMs)”] caused by anthropogenic activities have negative impacts on our environment and food productions. HMs can be classified as either essential or nonessential. A trace of essential HMs, such as Cu, Mo, and Zn, can be necessary for plant metabolism, but excess of them can harm the plant growth and development. Nonessential HMs, however, are toxic for plant metabolism and have damaging effects on enzyme activity, photosynthetic properties, cell membrane, permeability and eventually plant growth. Plants with avoidance and tolerance against stress could manage extreme HM stress in soils so that with special mechanisms, such as specific translation and metal accumulation, can elevate abiotic and biotic stress in plants. Moreover, in cells with mechanisms such as [e.g., “Metallothionein (MTs)”] (metal binding proteins) or [e.g., “Phytochelatin (PCs)”] storage and crystallization could reduce the HM stress in the cell wall, plasma membrane, cytosol, tonoplast and vacuoles. Meanwhile, the role of Si-mediation in detoxification of HMs is so bold. Si-mediation with increasing antioxidant, reducing lipid peroxidation, and increasing efficiency of photosynthetic properties elevates the HMs and other biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

Keywords HMs, stress, cells defense mechanism, Silicon.

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Added Value on Sade Village and Bau Nyale Festival in Autoimmune Diseases Immunization Travel: Supported by Aptamers Technology

AbstractPrevalence of Autoimmune diseases (AD) are high in developed countries and low in developing countries. Wall of worm were associated with lower level of allergy and support the hygiene hypothesis (HyHy). Long term use of Interferon as drug for AD and synthetic vaccine made by epitope mapping are global economic burden. Adolescence from developed countries traveling to Ghana forwarding AD-HyHy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for fighting AD have been developed in hygiene countries such as UK, Japan and Korea, meanwhile the aims of this study are reveal an added value to Sade village 'FMT culture' and Bau Nyale/Mandalika Princess festival for Nature Vaccination on AD. These local nature vaccination needs to be known by policy maker and political doer and could be a translational-medicine education topic to lessen AD economic global burden. Method: Systematic-review and Bayesian network analysis. EBSCO host search engine were used. Result: Description of 9 Publications of meta-analysis are chosen. Conclusions: The increasing of immunity in developing countries and decreasing in clean habit educated family is based on hygiene hypothesis, could be answered by local life-style and festival. These added value for local tour package has been supported by affimers and aptamers contemporary technology based on bacteria and worm epitope mapping.

Keywordshygiene hypothesis-autoimmune diseases, bacteria and worm cell wall, aptamers, epitope mapping, Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT).

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SERS of insecticides and fungicides assisted by Au and Ag nanostructures produced by laser techniques

Abstract This study deals with the use of laser techniques for preparation of advanced Au and Ag nanostructures on SiO2 (001) substrates to be applied to high-resolution analyses, namely, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analyses. The optical and morphological properties of the nanostructures are compared with those of the PLD thin films. The activity is tested of the structures fabricated as substrates for SERS covered by small quantities (usually applied in agricultural medicine) of the Aktara 25 BG (thiamethoxam) insecticide and the Dithane DG (mancozeb) fungicide. To the best of our knowledge, Raman spectra of Aktara 25 BG are presented for the first time. The study has a direct bearing on the human health and food quality by way of assisting the detection of small amounts or residue of harmful pollutants.

Keywords laser deposition and annealing, Ag and Au nanostructures, SERS, insecticide Aktara 25 BG, fungicide Dithane DG.

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Effects of Bradyrhizobia and Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivated on Ferrasols of Cujut district, DakNong province, Vietnam

Abstract A field experiment was conducted in Summer-Spring cropping season 2016 at Cujut district, DakNong province, Vietnam to study the effects of rhizobia and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on soybean (cv. Cujut) cultivated on ferralsols. The experiment consisted of six treatments as follows: control (no fertilizer, no inoculant), 240 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15, rhizobial inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 20 kg N/ha applied at 10 days after sowing [DAS], PSB inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 20 kg N/ha at 10 DAS, rhizobial and PSB inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 400 kg fertilizer/ha + 20 kg N/ha at 10 DAS and endophytic bacteria inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 400 kg fertilizer/ha + 20 kg N/ha at 10 DAS from June to August, 2016. The results showed that application of rhizobial inoculant and/or PSB inoculant produced significantly higher yield component, grain yield than control and did not differ from 240 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15. Consequently, application of rhizobia and PSB improved soil fertility after harversting however using mixture of rhizobia and PSB inoculation plus 400 kg biofertilizer/ha +20 kg N/ha for soybean cultivation supported yield component, grain yield and oil, protein in seed than control and equivalent with treatment of chemical fertilizer (240 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15). This technique not only increased grain yield, incomes for farmers but also improved soil fertility.

Keywords - Endophytes, Ferralsols, Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, Rhizobia, Soybean.

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The Influence of Soil Organic Matter on the Uptake of Silver Nanoparticles in a Terrestrial System

Abstract The uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles in soil was investigated in the presence of increasing concentrations of soil organic matter. Especially, the effect of Humus component of soil organic matter on the uptake of Ag from silver nanoparticles was studied. Two insect species, Acheta domesticus and Tenebrio molitor, and two plant species, Helianthus annuus and Sorghum vulgare, were exposed to silver nanoparticles(25 ppm in the presence of increasing concentrations of Humus (0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20% Humus) in soil (by weight). The techniques of transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the silver nanoparticles used in the study. An inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer was used to measure the levels of silver in test samples. Increasing concentrations of Humus in soil has resulted in an increase in the sulfur content and cation exchange capacity of the soil. A general decrease in the concentrations of silver was observed in Acheta domesticus and both the plant species, as a function of increasing concentrations of Humus in soil. In the case of plant species, the accumulation of silver nanoparticles was predominantly observed in the root tissue. Additionally, the translocation of silver from the roots to other plant tissues was observed in the case of Helianthus annuus. Results from this study suggest that the presence of Humus in soil could possibly decrease the uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles by insect and plant species.

Keywords Silver nanoparticles, Acheta domesticus, Tenebrio molitor, Helianthus annus, Sorghum vulgare, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer, Soil organic matter, Humus.

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Renewable energy resource of Sri Lanka! A review

Abstract Energy and related sectors play a key role in the developmental profile of Sri Lanka. Energy demand is going up and up with time due to population growth and industrial revolutions. In order to meet such growing needs probably we are relying on fossil fuel in a large fraction, which is leading to many negative environmental impacts. Hence the government decided to take off many long term as well as short term planes to promote renewable energy sector in Sri Lanka as it gives minimum impact to environment and its quality than the fossil fuel. This paper gives basic information about renewable energy resources of Sri Lanka and their development &future perspectives.

Keywords Renewable Energy, Fossil fuel, Sri Lanka, Environment.

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The Factors of Land use Conversion from Settlement Area to Commercial Area at IR. Soekarno/ Merr Street, Rungkut Street, and Medokan Ayu Street, Surabaya

Abstract— Land use that does not conform to its city plan is a common phenomenon that happens on fast growing cities. Land use conversion usually caused by discrepancy between the reasoning that underlie a city plan and market’s judgement. At the area around Ir. Soekarno Street / MERR that designed as a part of Surabaya City Ring Road, the land use is gradually changing from settlement area into commercial area. In urban planning, it is important to understand the cause of land use change in order to be able to handle the implication well. Therefore, the research objective was to identify the factors that affecting land use conversion from settlement area into commercial area at Ir. Soekarno Street/MERR, Rungkut Madya Street, and Medokan Ayu Street. The research’s methods are descriptive. The descriptive analysis was used to describe the land use change pattern at Ir. Soekarno Street/MERR, Rungkut Madya Street, and Medokan Ayu Street. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyses the factors that affecting land use conversion from settlement area into commercial area. The result showed that the factors that affecting land use conversion are land’s value, average income of the land owner, and land use in the surrounding area.

Keywords conversion factor, land use, settlement, commercial area, regression analysis.

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Red Algae (Rhodophyta) in Biomonitoring of Coastal Ecosystems

Abstract The formation, species composition and functional role of red algae were studied in the Black Sea’s coastal zone. In sublittoral plant communities, red algae are dominant both by their number of species in the phytocenosis and by their active thallus - the one that ensures their high metabolism. Algae with a large specific surface area of thallus can accumulate heavy metals in higher concentrations. In the paper, we discuss possibilities of using red algae as biomarkers of marine pollution, and as bio filters in the processes of water natural.

Keywords biological monitoring, biomarkers, heavy metals, red algae (Rhodophyta), sublittoral zone.

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Factors Affecting the Acceptance of Integration Tend Rice Fields

Abstract Land fragmentation is one of the country's traditional agricultural structural elements which nowadays as one of the main obstacles to agricultural development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the willingness to accept integration of rice fields by the lifters who strive in Behshahr interest and identify factors affecting it. In this respect, the required data through the completion of a questionnaire among lifters who strive in Behshahr interest collected and analyzed using Logit analysis. The results of the study showed that the amount of variables, age, education, experience, income, capital, area under cultivation and the distance of the Earth from each other parts have a significant difference. At the end of the research based on the results, decide to present.

Keywords consolidate, the tendency toward admission, rice, Behshahr.

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Saturday, 1 April 2017

Agriculture Journal: March 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-3, March 2017

Effect of Grazing Land Improvement Practices on Herbaceous production, Grazing Capacity and their Economics: Ejere district, Ethiopia

Abstract The effects of different grazing land improvement practices on herbaceous production, grazing capacities and their economics were studied in Ejere district, west Shoa zone, Ethiopia. Four different treatments, i.e., application of Urea and Diammonium phosphate (DAP), cattle manure, wooden ash, and a control/no application) were randomly applied to the study plots in three replications for each treatment. All experimental plots were fenced throughout the study period. The application of urea and DAP significantly increased grass (3620.86 kg ha-1) and total biomass production (5742.93 kg ha-1). Of the 6 herbaceous species recorded in the Urea and DAP plots, four of them were grasses with Setaria verticellata having the highest percentage composition (35.54%) while the control plot was dominated by Cyperus rotundus (31.5%) and Cerastium octandrum (31.5%). Less land is required to maintain a tropical livestock unit (TLU) in Urea and DAP applied plots (0.03 ha TLU-1) than in plots applied with other treatments (mean = 0.09 ha TLU-1). Similar to the result of the biological data, the participants of the grassland day rated the Urea and DAP applied treatment best because of the high production of grass. Considering total biomass production, application of manure was advantageous to the farmers due to increased net benefits and the marginal rate of return is above the minimum accetable rate for this sort of treatment. On the other hand, considering grass production alone, application of Urea and DAP was more profitable for farmers as far as they store and sell it in the dry seasons. In conclusion, we recommend a long-term study to examine the effects of the different treatments on productivity of grazing lands, herbaceous species composition, grazing capacities, livestock, the environment, and their economics.

Keywords Ash, grazing land improvement, manure, Urea, DAP.

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Agricultural Waste Management in order to sustainable agriculture in Karnataka

Abstract Renewable energy as an alternative of fossil fuel for minimizing pollution and related issues, has got significant role in recent years. Agricultural residues as a source of biomass can be used to produce biogas. Every year while production of agriculture product generates lots of agro-residues and in many cases either left behind with no use or burn. Whereas can be prevented losing this source of energy by converting to the other types of energy. Nevertheless in present study assessing the potential of producing biogas out of biomass (agricultural residue) during one year in Karnataka state has conducted. For this purpose, production of agricultural crop residues data during one year depends on volatile solid (VS), extracted and according to the related coefficient, potential of biogas (methane) production computed. Results showed Maximum extracted methane respectively belonged to the rice, jowar, ragi, peanut and cotton residues. The total potential of methane production during the one year, 6391403732 cubic meters estimated.

Keywords agriculture residues, waste management, biomass, biogas.

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CdTe quantum dots/Poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) multilayer films: preparation and application for gaseous sensors

Abstract CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) multilayer films (QDMF) have been self-assembled by layer-by-layer (LBL) technique. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by using Te, NaBH4, and CdCl2 as precursors and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as stabilizer. The as-prepared composites were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis adsorption spectrum(UV-vis), and Fluorescence spectrum(FS), respectively. It was shown that the self-assembled QDMF in this study could be used as gaseous sensors for detecting organic gases, such as ammonia, acetone, methanol and formaldehyde. The quenching mechanism of CdTe QDs multilayer films by formaldehyde was studied in detail and The detection limit was 10-236ppm.

Keywords CdTe quantum dots, gaseous sensor, PDDA, QDMF.

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Biosorption of Malathion pesticide using Spirogyra sp.

Abstract The biosorption of Malathion from aqueous solution by green algal biomass was investigated. The green algae used were of the species Spirogyra and was collected from Neugal river near Sujanpur, Himachal Pradesh. Batch biosorption experiments were performed to examine the effect of contact time, pH, biomass concentration and initial Malathion concentration. The concentration of residual Malathion concentration after biosorption was determined using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 309 nm. The maximum adsorption was found to be at pH 7 after a contact time of 5 hours with initial Malathion concentration of 100 mg/L and biomass of weight 75 mg. The equilibrium biosorption data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. Freundlich isotherm was found to be more favorable than Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords algae, biosorption, isotherm, Malathion, pesticide.

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The Relationship between Soil Moisture and Temperature Vegetation on Kirklareli City Luleburgaz District A Natural Pasture Vegetation

Abstract This study was realized in 2014 – 2015 in two different sections of Kirklareli city Luleburgaz district Sakizkoy village natural pasture in order to research the effect of soil moisture and soil temperature on area covered by vegetation, plant species and dry yield. As research area, study was conducted in two different sections defined as A and B located to the north and south of village coppice forest area located within the borders of Kirklareli city Luleburgaz district Sakizkoy village. By this study, the relation between soil moisture and temperature with plant species were evaluated by CANOCO 4.5 computer program. Accordingly, the effect of ecological values on vegetative properties was presented. According to research results, soil moisture and temperature have significant effect on vegetation. In the first year when soil moisture was high, hay yield was 2901.9 kg/ha while the yield was detected as 480.1 kg/ha after soil temperature (which is inversely correlated with soil moisture) increased in the second year. It was determined that Lolium perenne (one of the dominant species of vegetation) is common in parcels with high moisture while Chrysopogon gryllus is common in parcels where soil temperature is high.

Keywords pasture, dry yield, soil moisture, soil temperature, CANOCO 4.5.

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Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen compounds in Assam (India)

Abstract The study comprises estimate of wet deposited nitrogenous compounds in Assam (India). Deposition has been estimated from a survey works (2010-11) at urban and peri-urban areas of Assam. Air samples were collected by clinical syringe (10 cm3) for Oxides of Nitrogen (NO, NO2: NOx) and reduced Nitrogen (NH3, NH4+: NHy). The samples were diffused into 10 cm3 each of distilled water and 0.1N HCl respectively for estimation of mean concentration of weighted hydrogen (µeql-1), quantity of elemental nitrogen (N) or nitrate (NO3-1) and ammonium (NH4+) ions expressed in mg l-1 or kg ha-1y-1. The measured concentrations of the nitrogenous compounds were interpolated with a properly used Kriging Technique on a 1km x 1km grid covering districts characterised by varying congestions of population, vehicular transport and of industrial evidences. There were many fold variations of these air quality parameters among the major sites and locations of the pollutants e.g. nitrogen deposited through aerosol of its oxides ranged from 6.0-38 kg ha-1yr-1, whereas nitrogen accumulation from the reduced aerosol was 7-24 kg ha-1yr-1. Tissue nitrogen in some indicator plant species (e.g.Pinus longifolia, Ficus benjamina), collected from the square grids of polluted areas was also elevated. Thus, the hypothesis that the North-east India, especially Assam is also facing with enrichment of nitrogenous pollution due to anthropogenic activities, mass vehicular and industrial growth, was tested.

Keywords— Oxides of nitrogen, reduced nitrogen, weighted hydrogen, aerosols, pollution.

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The Influence of Vermiculite on the Uptake of Silver Nanoparticles in a Terrestrial System

Abstract The uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles in soil was investigated in the presence of increasing concentrations of Vermiculite, typical 2:1 clay. Two insect species, Acheta domesticus and Tenebrio molitor, and two plant species, Helianthus annuus and Sorghum vulgare, were exposed to silver nanoparticles in the presence of increasing concentrations of Vermiculite in soil. Silver nanoparticles were characterized using techniques including transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffraction. The levels of silver in test species exposed to silver nanoparticles were measured using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. An increase in the cation exchange capacity of soil was observed with the increase in the concentration of vermiculite in soil. The results suggested a decrease in the uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles in soil by Acheta domesticus as a function of increasing concentrations of Vermiculite in soil. No apparent trend was observed in the remaining species. Both plant species were found to accumulate silver in their roots. The translocation of silver to stems and leaves was observed in the case of Helianthus annuus. Results from this study suggest that the presence of Vermiculite in soil could possibly decrease the uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles.

Keywords Silver nanoparticles, Acheta domesticus, Tenebrio molitor, Helianthus annus, Sorghum vulgare, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer, Cation exchange capacity.

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Comparison of Resistance to Fusarium wilts disease in Seeded and Regenerated Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

Abstract Plant tissue culture has been used as a tool for crop improvement in many different ways. Such as somaclonal variation that occurred in many different crops. In this study a program for disease resistance was established in sesame using somaclonal variation. As resistance to Fos is very important so different kinds and concentrations of Plant Growth Regulators were tested for producing of plantlet regenerated from apical shoot explants.

The results showed that the combination of BA and NAA also BA and IAA with ABA could be used for regenerating sesame plantlets from apical shoots. The difference in BA concentrations had a positive effect on shoot and root regeneration and at least plant regeneration. So with combination of high level of BA and low level of NAA shooting from explants was dominant and with low level of BA and high level of NAA rooting was progressed. Regenerated plantlets and seeded planlets were compared for examining of resistance or susceptibility to Fos. The result showed that somaclonal variant resulted from regeneration of shoot and root of sesame could lead to producing resistant plantlets.

Keywords fusarium, sesame, somaclonal variation.

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Analysis of Trend and Variability of Temperature in Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria, 1984-2015

Abstract Temperature being one of the indicators of climate change has become one of the most important discussions of recent times. Changes in temperature influence a variety of processes directly or indirectly which cut across every aspect of man existences. This paper therefore examined the trend in temperature as tools of climate change over Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria, which is an area well known for crop agriculture. Temperature data covering a period of 31 years (1984-2015) were collected and analyzed using mean, moving average, standard deviation coefficient of variation and linear regression. Result revealed that there is a positive trend in temperature over the study period and that the area is getting warmer by 0.0037oc annually, which is an Indication that Ebonyi State is experiencing a rise in air surface temperature. Since most of the inhabitants are dependent on economic activities that are temperature sensitive like farming, the study therefore recommends that measures should be taken by all stakeholders including the government, individuals and cooperate bodies to take the issue of climate variability serious in the study area in order to mitigate its impact in the long run.

Keywords Climate Change, Ebonyi, Trend, Temperature, Agriculture.

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Analyzing Marketing Margins and the Direction of Price Flow in the Tomato Value Chain of Limpopo Province, South Africa

Abstract The Limpopo Province is home to South Africa’s tomato farming giants, some of whom also occupy the position of the largest producers of the commodity in the Southern Hemisphere. Regardless of its importance in the tomato industry of the country, there are few studies analysing the mechanism through which prices of tomatoes are determined and transmitted from the farm gate in Limpopo to the various provincial, local and international markets. This study attempts to fill the knowledge gap on the performance of Limpopo Province’s tomato markets by examining the marketing margins and the direction of price flow amongst the successive tomato marketing levels. By means of the Concurrent Marketing Margin Analysis approach, it was established that the farmers’ portion of the consumer’s Rand is low. About 85.1% of the consumer’s Rand goes to pay for marketing margins. Granger causality tests show that both the wholesale and retail prices are caused by farm gate prices. The farm level is therefore key to tomato price determination in Limpopo Province of South Africa and pertinent policies that improve the commodity’s primary sector may potentially enhance the other sectors in value chain that depend on tomato production.

Keywords Limpopo Province, market dominance, marketing margins, price flow, tomato markets, vertical price linkage.

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Genome–Wide Analysis and Expression Pattern of the AP2/ERF Gene Family in Kiwifruit under Waterlogging Stress Treatment

AbstractAPETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factors play important roles in the response to abiotic stresses. It is now possible to identify all of the AP2/ERF genes in the kiwifruit genome because the kiwifruit genome project has been completed. 183 AP2/ERF genes were identified and compared with AP2/ERF genes from Arabidopsis in this study. The 183 AP2/ERF kiwifruit genes were classified into four subfamilies: DREB (64), ERF (94), AP2 (19) and RAV (5), as well as one soloist. RNA-sequence and Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis results showed that 20 genes were responsive to waterlogging stress, suggesting that AP2/ERF transcription factors play important roles in the response to waterlogging stress in kiwifruit

KeywordsAP2/ERF, kiwifruit, waterlogging stress.

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New banana genotypes and cultivars more productive for southern Minas, Brazil

Abstract Southern of Minas state, is a important producer of banana, especially the cultivars Prata-Anã, Nanicão and Maçã. These cultivars present low productivity, great plant height and are susceptible to major banana diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative and productive behavior of banana cultivars as Prata, Nanicão and Maçã, in Lavras, MG, Brazil to select those with the best features, of bunch and fruit size, lower production cycle and disease resistance in high land conditions. Were evaluated the following materials: type: ‘Prata’: ‘Prata-Anã’ (control), ‘BRS Maravilha’, ‘BRS Vitoria’, PA 94-01; type ‘Nanicão’: ‘Grande Naine’ (control) and FHIA 17 and type ‘Maçã’: ‘Maçã’ (control) and YB 42-03. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications and 16 plants per plot. Regarding the type ‘Prata-Anã’, ‘BRS Maravilha’ and PA 94-01 are recommended by their greater productivity, plant height, production cycle, flavor and fruit appearance in relation to cv ‘Prata-Anã’ traditionally grown in region. PV 94-01 and ‘Vitoria’, despite the greats plant height, are recommended due to the greater productivity. The YB 42-03 genotype is an alternative to ‘Maçã’ because it is similar to productivity, size and production cycle.

Keywords Musa, Banana, Production cycle, Yield.
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Uptake of Silver from Polyvinylpyrrolidine Coated Silver Nanoparticles in a Terrestrial System

Abstract The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has facilitated their uninterrupted entry into various ecosystems. Nanoparticles are stabilized using a variety of approaches for various applications. The present study has investigated the uptake of polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP) coated Ag NPs in a terrestrial system. Two insect (Acheta domesticus and Tenebrio molitor) and two plant species (Sorghum vulgare and Helianthus annuus) were used in the study. The effect of concentration and size of PVP-coated Ag NPs was investigated. The test species were maintained in soil spiked with 0, 1, 5, 25, 125, and 625 mg/kg PVP-coated 30-50 nm Ag NPs to test the effect of concentration of Ag NPs on uptake. Similarly, the test species were maintained in soil spiked with 25 mg/kg of 20, 30-50, and 50-80 nm PVP-coated Ag NPs to study the effect of size of nanoparticles on uptake. The PVP-coated Ag NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The levels of silver in test samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. A concentration dependent increase in the levels of Ag in both the insect species was observed as a function of increasing concentrations of coated Ag NPs in soil. An increase in the levels of Ag as a function of increasing size of coated Ag NPs was observed with Acheta domesticus. No apparent trend was observed with Tenebrio molitor species. A concentration dependent increase in the levels of Ag in the roots of both the plants was observed as a function of increasing concentrations of coated Ag NPs in soil. Additionally, the translocation of Ag to other plant tissues was observed in Helianthus annuus, a dicot plant.

Keywords Silver nanoparticles, polyvinylpyrrolidine, Acheta domesticus, Tenebrio molitor, Sorghum vulgare, Helianthus annuus, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy.

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Radial variation in microfibril angle of Acacia mangium.

Abstract Thirteen years old provenance trials of Acacia mangium from five provenances were established at five sites in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, were sampled for this study. Fifty trees were sampled at random and cut to study radial variation in microfibril angle in the SS2 of secondary wall of the fibre using polarised microscope. Microfibril angle decreased from pith to bark with the greatest decrease occurred within the first two radial sampling near to the pith. It ranged from 5.9° to 28.8° with an overall mean and coefficient of variation of 12.6° and 45.8% respectively. It had a mean value of 21.4° at pith and 6.9° near the bark, which is a decrease of 67.8%. Highly significant different in mircrofibril angle were detected between radials of individual trees at α≥0.001. It was the major contributors to the total variance in which contributed for about 64.8%. Variations between trees were highly significant at α≥0.001 and accounted for 25.5% of the variation in microfibril angle while differences between the two orientations were not significant at α≤0.05.

Keywords Acacia mangium, microfibril angle, radial variation, pith to bark, interaction.

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Tuesday, 7 March 2017

Agriculture Journal February-2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-2, February 2017

Toxicity and Effect of Cypermethrin onTotal Protein and Nucleic Acid Content in the Tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala

Abstract Effect of cypermethrin (25%EC) on total protein and nucleic acid content in different tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala was assessed by static renewal bioassay, using different sub-lethal concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% of 96h LC50) for 5, 10 and 15 days duration. There was a gradual decrease in protein content in all the tissues under sub-lethal concentrations at all exposure periods with maximum percentage of depletion (45.26%) in muscle and minimum (35.12%) in kidney at 15 days and at 20% 96hLC50. DNA and RNA contents were not altered much by cypermethrin at 5th day which later gradually decreased with increased exposure period. Decrement in DNA content is less in muscle when compared to the other tissues. Maximum percentage of depletion in DNA was (17.17%) in liver and minimum (13.94%) in muscle at 15 days and at 20% 96hLC50. RNA content decreased significantly in liver (29.90%), muscle (25.53%), brain (23.38%), kidney (21.82%) and gill (20.34%). This decrease was comparatively higher at 15 days and at 20% 96hLC50. Influence of cypermethrin was found to be time and exposure dependent for both the nucleic acids in the aquaculture practices used edible fish.

Keywords Cypermethrin, DNA, Protein, RNA, Synthetic pyrethroids, Toxicity.

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Cloning and Functional Analysis of TCAP3 Gene in Taxus Chinensis var. mairei

Abstract Taxus Chinensis var. mairei is a valuable plant species for timber and taxoids isolated from this species are very important compounds that are used for cancer treatment. Although chemical investigation on T. chinensis var. mairei are popular, functional identification of genes isolated from this species is rare. In this investigation, we have isolated TCAP3 gene and analyzed its expression pattern in different tissue and developmental stages through Real time-PCR; then we transformed this gene into Arabidopsis and analyzed its function. Our results demonstrated that its cDNA contains 846 bp bases (coding 197 amino acids) constituted by four typical domains, M, I, K, C with conserved motif, Phylogenetic analysis showed that TCAP3 is more ancient than angiosperm B class genes. Alignment of protein sequence demonstrated the conserved motifs, which illustrated that TCAP3 belongs to gymnosperm Gymno B class MADS-box genes with PI-derived, on C-teminal, which is similar structure to the Gymno B class MADS-box genes that they share the same B class gene specific conserved motif. Expression analysis of TCAP3 in different tissue showed that it only expression in male strobilus, not in leaf, bud and female strobilus at different developmental stages. We divided the stages according to paraffin sections of male strobilus. The results indicated that TCAP3 expresses dynamically along with the male strobilus. Heterologous expression of TCAP3 in Arabidopsis demonstrated that TCAP3 was involved in flower, especially the filaments morphological development.

Keywords Taxus Chinensis var. Mairei; gene cloning; B-class gene; expression pattern; functional analysis.

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Study of Dyeing of Cotton Fabric using Peanut Pod Natural Dyes using Al2So4 CuSo4 and FeSo4 Mordanting Agent

Abstract The decline in the use of artificial colourants due to their toxicity in food and textile industry, put forward by international market has increased the importance of natural raw materials. From those, peanut pod (Arachis hypogaea) with solid applications is one of the most important sources of natural dyes. The major colouring component in peanut is pods, extracted from the fresh and dried peanut pod. The aim of present work is to evaluate peanut pod powder as natural textile dyestuff. The work consists of three steps, i.e. extraction, characterization and dyeing processes. The dye extraction procedure is conventional and traditional. Dyeing of cotton fabrics with the extract of peanut pod powder has been carried out and dyeing has been optimized using three mordanting agents as: Alum, Copper Sulphate and Ferrous Sulphate. Finally, dyed fabric have been subjected to different textile laboratory tests e.g., colour fastness, light fastness, washing fastness and rubbing fastness (dry and wet).

Keywords Peanut Pod, Natural Dyes, Cotton Fabric, Mordanting Agents, Environmental Friendly.

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The Role of Soil Organisms and Functions in different Coconut based Multiple Cropping Systems

AbstractSampling was done in wet and intermediate zones represented by the Walpita and Makandura research centers, respectively. Eleven land use systems were considered for the study; coconut mono culture (CM), bare land (BL) and coconut multiple cropping. Under coconut multiple cropping, nine different intercrops were selected separately for each zones. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates (n = 3). The experiment was conducted under mature baring coconut (>20 years) plantation. Soil Macrofauna was sampled using one transect with three replicates at each land use type using quadrate size (30×30cm) from 0-30 cm depth and visible organisms were handpicked and preserved in 75% alcohol. Dilute plate technique and Spread plate technique was used to determine the soil micro organisms’ density. Those techniques were used to cultivate the fungi and bacteria under and dilution level respectively.

Research identified 12 classes (Crusteacea, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gastropoda, Acarina, Araneida, Scopionida, Chilapoda, Diplopoda, Amphibia, Reptelia) and 14 orders (Hemiptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Thysanura, Hymenoptera, Lepidotera, Orthoptera, Blattaria, Mantodea, Phasmida, Dermaptera, Isoptera, Siphonaptera, Thysanoptera) of soil organisms. Class insecta shows the high diversity with 14 orders. Colony forming unit (CFU) value of bacteria was higher than that of the fungi value. Findings of intermediate and wet zones’ studies suggested that coconut multiple cropping systems may have high diversity, abundance and functional role of soil organisms. Both zones studies suggested that coconut multiple cropping systems may increase soil moisture factor, respiration rate, biomass carbon content, organic carbon percentage, total nitrogen content, organic matter content and C:N ratio in 0-30cm depth other than the coconut monoculture systems. Overall data of two different zones indicated a significant positive correlation of soil organism diversity, abundance and their functional role with cropping systems. Those data can be used as a reliable basic bio indicator for payments for ecosystem services (PES). It supports to valorize the economic value of the ecological services returned by soil organisms.

Keywords—Soil organisms, diversity, abundance, multiple cropping systems, eco system services, payments for ecosystem services, soil ecology.

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Enterocin 55 produced by non rabbit-derived strain Enterococcus faecium EF55 in relation with microbiota and selected parameters in broiler rabbits

Abstract— Ent55 is produced by poultry strain Enterococcus faecium EF55. It is substance which can be allotted to Class II enterocins; thermo-stable, small peptide. Because producer strain has shown beneficial effect in poultry and broiler rabbits as well, we decided to apply Ent55 in broiler rabbit husbandry. Ent55 showed antimicrobial activity in broiler rabbits by reduction of staphylococci, Clostridiae, pseudomonads and coliforms. Its beneficial effect was demonstrated by stimulation of phagocytic activity as well as by reduction of Eimeria spp. oocysts. GPx values were lower; it means, no oxidative stress was evoked. Moreover, it has not negative influence on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Our results indicated that enterocin produced by not-autochtonous strain can also have protective and beneficial effect in broiler rabbits.

Keywords Enterocin, effect, microbiota, immunity, rabbit.

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Assessment of Commonly Used Pesticides in the Ground Water of the Shallow Aquifer Systems in Jericho and Jeftlik areas/ Lower Jordan Valley, Occupied Palestinian Territories

Abstract One of the most important pollutants that may reach the groundwater through agricultural return flow combined with abuse and ignorance is pesticides. This study focuses on the examination of the concentration of three pesticides: Abamectin, Imidacloprid, and ß-Cyfluthrin, all of which have been used in large quantities in the Lower Jordan Valley (LJV) for the last three decades. Twenty five groundwater samples were collected from water boreholes where water is abstracted from two phreatic aquifer systems which are the Plio-Plistocene aquifer system in Jericho and Lower Al Jeftlik areas and the Eocene carbonate aquifer system in the Middle of Al Jeftlik. The depth of the boreholes in both aquifer system ranges between 80 and 120 m. Water samples were analyzed for Abamectin, Imidacloprid, and ß-Cyfluthrin using the HPLC-UV method. These samples represent two main agricultural locations (Jericho, and the Al Jeftlik). Of the 25 wells sampled, Abamectin was detected in 11 wells in concentrations ranging between 1.24 ppb and 81.71ppb. Imidacloprid was detected in 24 wells in concentrations ranging between 1.60ppb and 325.0ppb. Finally, ß-Cyfluthrin was detected in 7 wells in concentrations ranging between 1.10 and 24.46ppb.

Aquifer lithology, groundwater flow directions, type of agricultural activity are major factors in controlling pesticide concentrations in groundwater. The highest values were measured where the aquifer consists of gravel and sand sediments, combined with intensive agricultural activities, followed by sand-silt aquifer. The lowest concentrations were found in boreholes where carbonate aquifer is the main source of water which indicates that other source of water flow into the system. The results of this study demonstrate that these pesticides are used heavily and in an improper way in the lower Jordan Valley, increasing the risk of adverse environmental and public health effects. Much attention should be given to addressing the potential problem of environmental and groundwater contamination by these pesticides.

Keywords Shallow Aquifer, Jericho area, Pesticide, Abamectin, Imidacloprid, ß-Cyfluthrin, Jericho.

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Effects of Feeding Whole Cottonseed, Cotton Seed Cake and Guizotia abyssinica (Noug seed) cake on Blood Serum Parameters of Growing Arsi- Bale Male Goats

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effect of feeding whole cotton seed, of Gossipium hirustum spp (WCS), cottonseed cake (CSC) and noug seed cake (NSC) on blood serum parameters of growing male goats. Twenty four Arsi-Bale growing male goats of 6-12 months of age were assigned at random to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were; (T1) local grass hay only (control), (T2) control +20% WCS, (T3) control+30% CSC all amount on total daily DMI basis and (T4) control + recommended level noug seed cake(50% wheat bran (WB) and 49% NSC). Blood samples were collected in 10ml vactainer tube by jugular vein puncture every 30, 60 and 90 days of the experimental days and were allowed to clot at room temperature and centrifuged for 15minutesat 3000 rpm. The separated serum samples were stored in a deep freezer at -20oC until they were analyzed. Te samples were analyzed for serum parameters: albumin, total protein, glucose, urea nitrogen, creatinine and alkaline phosphate Significant (P<0.05) difference between treatments was observed in the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphate and albumin. Higher levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were observed for T4 while higher alkaline phosphate was observed for T3 and higher albumin was observed for T2. However, no significant (P>0.05) difference between treatments were observed in the levels of total serum protein and glucose. Moreover, no visible clinical sign of gossypol toxicity was observed on the experimental goats fed WCS and CSC during the 90 days of the experimental period. Hence, it was concluded that supplementation of growing male goat diets with recommended levels of NSC,20 and 30% WCS and CSC respectively have no adverse effect on blood serum parameters of growing male goats.

Keywords blood serum parameters, cotton seed cake, goats, noug seed cake, whole cottonseed.

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Study of natural fibers from waste from sponge gourd, peach palm tree and papaya pseudstem

Abstract Lignocellulosic wastes from agro-industry are usually discarded, despite their technical potential for use to reinforce composites. Because of increasing environmental concerns, scientific interest is growing to characterize fiber residues from peach palm tree trunks, papaya tree trunks and sponge gourds. The peach palm residues were obtained from the portion of the trunk not suitable for hearts of palm, while the papaya trunk residues were obtained from trees cut down after three years of fruit production and the sponge gourd waste material came from leftover gourds not suitable for making bath sponges. The materials were characterized regarding moisture content, density, ash content, lignin and holocellulose content, and soluble content, and were submitted to thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, mechanic property and morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy. The moisture, extractives and ash contents of the papaya pseudsterm and peach palm wastes were very near each other. The sponge gourd fibers had the highest concentrations of α-cellulose and hemicellulose and lowest levels of extractable soluble, and ash. The characterization results show that these waste materials are comparable with other agro-industrial residues described in the literature for use in making composites, so they have good potential for use as polymer reinforcement.

Keywords lignocellulosic fibers, peach palm tree, papaya pseudstem, sponge gourd.

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Sunday, 5 February 2017

Agriculture Journal: January 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-1, January 2017

Production and Application of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria as Biofertilizer: Field Trial at Maize Field, Uchalan, Burdwan District, West Bengal

Abstract Soil microorganism plays an important role in regulating the levels of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur at the rhizosphere. Solubilization of macronutrient is an important aspect in plant growth and development research. Phosphorus is one of the vital nutrient required for optimum growth of plant. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) plays an important role in increasing the phosphate uptake by the plants. Pikovskaya medium containing TCP or tricalcium phosphate helps in isolation of PSB from soil sample. Isolated strains were tested and screened by Halo zone formation and pH test. The selected strains showing marked decrease in pH and clear zone formation was selected for field trial. The objective of this study was to ascertain that PSBs isolated from the soil sample can be used as biofertilizer. Application of PSBs with a carrier mixed with maize seeds in the field of study and compared against a control field and against commercially available fertilizer showed that PSBs can improve the quality of soil and in turn improved the growth and development of the plants.

Keywords Biofertilizer, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria, chemical fertilizer, plant growth, soil fertility, field trial.

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Dissipation Pattern of carbendazim and cypermethrin on Curry Leaf

Abstract Field experiments were conducted during kharif 2014 and 2015 with curry leaf variety Suwasini to study the dissipation pattern of carbendazim 50 EC at 500 g a.i. ha-1 and cypermethrin 10 % EC @ 50 g a i/ha (550 ml/ha) 1 by giving two sprays first at vegetative stage and second 10 days later. The leaf samples collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 45th day after second spray and soil samples at 45th day for residue analysis showed initial deposits of carbendazim 16.00 mg kg-1 and Cypermetrin 13.09 mg kg-1 which ,dissipated to 0.04 mg kg -1 and 0. 28 mg kg – 1 respectively. The residues reached to Below Determination Level (BDL) at 20 and 10 days, respectively. As there were no pesticide recommendations and MRLs fixed for any of the pesticide in curry leaf, the day at which residues reached BDL can be suggested as the safe harvest period for curry leaf.

Keywords Dissipation pattern, , curry leaf, BDL, curry leaf.

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Nutritional Diagnosis of "Hass" Avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) Soil Fertility and Water Quality, In Tepoztlán, Morelos

Abstract In recent years, the avocado has become an important fruit species in Mexico, where it is distributed in six states, among which there is the state of Morelos. For the study, two agrohabitats with eight-year-old avocado orchards located in Tepoztlán, Morelos were selected. Soil fertility of the orchards was evaluated, as well as the quality of irrigation water, and the nutritional state of the leaves; sufficiency ranges were calculated, and the Deviation from Optimum Percentage method was used to interpret the results. Soils and the quality of irrigation water showed different chemical characteristics that had an influence on nutrient concentration in avocado leaves. The Deviation from Optimum Percentage (DOP) method allowed us to identify requirements of N, Zn, Mn, Fe and B in agrohabitat one, and deficiencies of P, K, Ca, S, Zn and Mn in agrohabitat two, which must be taken into account to implement a fertilization program in the studied orchards.

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Biotransformation of Panax notoginseng by fungi

Abstract Roots of Panax notoginseng were fermented with 30 fungi respectively. Almost one-third of the products showed increasing antibacterial activity. All products could inhibit GST-CDC25 phosphatase as a potential antitumor agent. HPLC profiles proved that components of unfermented P. notoginseng and fermented P. notoginseng have obviously changes.

Keywords Panax notoginseng, biotransformation, antibacterial activity, antitumor activity.

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Prediction of Soil Total Nitrogen Content using Spectraradiometer and GIS in southern Iraq

Abstract In this study, soil samples were collected from two locations: Samawa and Rumetha in southern Iraq. The samples from each location were split into two datasets: calibration set and validation set. VNIR reflectance (350-2500 nm) and GIS-Kriging were used in combination with Partial Least Square (PLS) to predict total N. only two regions reported higher determination coefficient R2 and lower Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) than the other wavelength regions. PLS calibration models yielded an R2 of 0.96 and 0.97 for Rumetha and 0.87 and 0.94 for Samawa location in bands at 500-600 and 800-1000 nm, respectively. The potential of VNIR-based and GIS-Kriging models to predict new unknown soil samples were assessed by using validation datasets from both studied locations. The cross-validation of GIS-Kriging models were unsatisfactory predicted with an Q2 of 0.28 between laboratory-measured and predicted total N values for Rumetha and 0.43 for Samawa location. While VNIR- based validation models achieved highly predictive power with an R2v of 0.84 between laboratory-measured and predicted total N values for Rumetha and 0.85 for Samawa location. These results reveal extremely decreasing in model predictive ability when shifting from VNIR Spectroscopy method to GIS-Kriging.

Keywords GIS, Kriging, Spectroradiometer, Total Nitrogen.

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Prevalence and predictors of mental health among farmworkers in Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey

Abstract

Background: Mental health problems represent a major component of the global burden of disease. The primary objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of psychological wellbeing among farmworkers and to evaluate their mental health services need for in rural primary health care settings.

Methods: The study sample comprised 1855 farmworkers (918 women, and 937 men) who were selected using probability cluster sampling method at 95% confidence interval (87.6 % response rate). The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and socio-demographic information form were used to data collection.

Results: The overall prevalence of mental health problems was 31.5%; the prevalence among women was 1.4 times that of men (35%, females; 28.2%, males). Logistic regression analyses revealed that poor general health, as well as presence of chronic diseases and exposure to traumatic life events predicted mental ill health among both sex. Poor economic situation, being seasonal migrant farmworker, and pesticide exposure history affected male mental health problems; while type of settlement, history of having disabled child at birth, and not having a family physician were significant predictors of female mental ill health (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for systematic development of community-based mental health services in conjunction with rural primary health care center and an integrated approach to health care of farmworkers. These include screening, early identification and treatment of mental health problems, development of non-communicable disease (NCD) control program, maternal health services and urgent measures to improve farmworkers’ work safety and pesticide applications.

Key words: Farmworkers, Psychological health, Predictors, General Health Questionnaire -12.

Disclosures: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Funding: This study was funded by a grant from Southeastern Anatolia Project Regional Development Administration

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Effect of enhanced solar UVB (280-320nm) radiation on secondary pigment synthesis in some plants

Abstract The investigation was carried out to find out whether enhanced UVB radiation increases the synthesis of secondary metabolites in some plants grown under tropical region. Like tropical plant temperate plant also grown successfully in the tropical region. Tropical plants are thought to have an inherent resistance to abiotic stress. The abiotic stress that enhances the ability of the plant by increasing the content of the secondary bioactive components. While the plants exposed to enhanced UVB radiation in the field condition, the synthesis of secondary pigments like flavonoids and anthocyanin level varied among species. In radish and beet- root the synthesis of flavonoid and anthocyanin the content was increased, whereas, in the onion and carrot, the level of synthesis of secondary pigment was less. But compared to ambient plants the UVB the irradiated the plant has more secondary pigment. So it proves that the UVB radiation increases the synthesis of secondary pigment content by activating the defence mechanism and to protect plants against UVB damage.

Keywords Anthocyanin, UV-B radiation, Carrot, Radish, Beetroot, Onion, Seconary pigment.

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Investigation of carbonisation of wheat stems from central Europe during slow pyrolysis at different temperatures

Abstract Slow pyrolysis of wheat stems from south-west Thuringia in Central Germany favours the interaction of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. As a result, after low pyrolysis temperatures of 600 °C, 800 °C or 1000 °C crystallinity of bio-carbon is pronounced. As shown by Raman spectroscopy, with increasing pyrolysis temperature, the intensity ratio ID/IG of D band to G band increases. This gives evidence of a growing amount of aromatic graphitic rings with a lot of disorder in the carbonaceous biogenetic material. With increasing pyrolysis temperature more 6-fold, still defective carbon rings form out of the amorphous sp2-C-C matrix. High resolution transmission electron microscopy identifies parallel layers of crystalline carbon that are oriented in bands after pyrolysis at 800 °C. This degree of order after a relatively low pyrolysis temperature is excellent. For many applications, regulated and oriented crystallinity is essential. Steering the orientation and fraction of crystalline bio-carbon could be favourable for producing carbon fibres of higher quality from suitable biomass. By regulating the composition of lignin to cellulose, hemicelluose or other substances, the bio-carbon crystallinity could be adjusted.

Keywords carbonation, wheat stems, pyrolysis, Central Europe.

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The CarboZALF-D manipulation experiment – experimental design and SOC patterns

Abstract The CarboZALF-D manipulation experiment – experimental design and SOC patterns

Soil erosion by water or tillage is an essential landscape-shaping factor with feedbacks to the carbon cycle. To study C dynamics and C balances as a function of soil erosion we set up a manipulation experiment at field scale, called “CarboZALF-D”. A defined amount of topsoil material was removed from an eroded Luvisol towards a Colluvic Regosol and reactive, clay-enriched subsoil material was blended into the topsoil of the eroded Luvisol. By doing so we induced transient states for C cycling, net fluxes of CO2 and the C balance. The overall aim of our experiment is to get reliable findings to answer the question: Does soil erosion causes a CO2 source or sink in arable landscapes? In this paper the concept, implementation, and preliminary results of the manipulation experiment are described.

Keywords bulk density, carbon stock, manipulation experiment, simulated erosion, SOC pattern.

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Evaluation of curryleaf Farmgate Samples for Pesticide Residues

Abstract Seventy five curry leaf samples from curry leaf grown farms in Guntur, Ananthapur and Medak districts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India were analysed for pesticide residues by LCMS/MS. Recovery studies were performed at 0.025 0.05 and 0.5 mg kg -1 fortification levels of each compound and the recoveries obtained ranged from 81.0 % to 119.0 % with relative standard deviations lower than 19.1 %.The method showed good linearity over the assessed range 0.01–1.0 mg kg-1with correlation coefficient of 0.999 and the detection and quantification limits for the pesticides studied varied from 0.001mg Kg-1and 0.05 mg Kg-1, respectively. The samples were detected with number of compounds of different groups dominated by Organo Phosphates (29.6%) followed by Synthetic Pyrethroids (20.69%), Fungicides (13.79%), Neo nicotinoids (10.34%), Herbicides(6.90%) and Carbamates(3.45%).The residue levels ranged from 37.78 mg Kg-1 to 0.05 mg Kg-1.It is therefore necessary to conduct extensive monitoring studies on pesticide usage pattern on curry leaf in different agro-climatic regions of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana to know the exact status of pesticide contamination at farm gate level.

Keywords Curryleaf, farmgate, pesticide residues, quantification.

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Evaluation of characteristics of Simplicillium lanosoniveum on pathogenicity to aphids and in vitro antifungal potency against plant pathogenic fungi

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the aphidicidal and antifungal activities of Simplicillium lanosoniveum in laboratory conditions. S. lanosoniveum isolate Cs0701 shown to be pathogenic to the aphids, Aphis gossypii, Ceratovacuna lanigera and Hysteroneura setariae. The data showed that isolate Cs0701 exudates had greater mycelial growth-inhibiting effects on plant pathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Alternaria brassicicola and Rhizoctonia solani, in cellophane paper antibiosis test. In addition, mycelial growth of Cochliobolus miyabeanus, Curvularia lunata and Fusarium sp. were partially inhibited by isolate Cs0701 exudates. The culture filtrates of isolate Cs0701 were screened for their antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungi. The results revealed that A. brassicicola, Cochliobolus miyabeanus and Curvularia lunata conidial germination was inhibited by isolate Cs0701. The culture filtrate was also able to inhibit conidial germination of jasmine orange (Murraya paniculata) powdery mildew, Oidium murrayae. However, plant host range tests showed that isolate Cs0701 was not pathogenic to Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Lemma perpusilla and Glycine max. Taken together, these findings provide convincing experimental evidence that S. lanosoniveum isolate Cs0701 is biologically active against both aphids and plant pathogenic fungi including powdery mildew. Pot and field trials are necessary to confirm efficacy of S. lanosoniveum against aphids and plant pathogenic fungi.

Keywords biological control agent, Simplicillium lanosoniveum, aphidicidal activity, antifungal activity.

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Chalkbrood: pathogenesis and the interaction with honeybee defenses

Abstract— There are numerous threats that affect bee populations worldwide such as exposure to pesticides; genetic diversity, poor nutrition and the impact of pathogens. Between them, Ascosphaera apis is the etiological agent of chalkbrood disease that affects honeybees brood. To understand the biology of this pathogen, we revised the phylogeny, morphology, and sexual reproduction. The pathogenesis, closely related to the factors that affect the virulence the A. apis and their interactions with the host, are determinant at moment of developing chalkbood. The honeybee develops several strategies to defend themselves from these pathogens. First, the individual immunity mechanisms such us perithrophic membrane, the microbiota of midgut larvae and the humoral and cellular immunity are the first defense barriers against A. apis. Later, other mechanisms would appear, related to the social immunity, such as their social organization, the polyandry, the hygienic behavior and the social fever, that change the environmental conditions in the bee colony reducing A. apis viability. However, other pathogens such as Nosema spp, Varroa destructor, several viruses, and the presence of pesticides affect the sanitary status of the honeybee allowing the fungus to develop easily. Finally, we describe to our knowledge, the best three natural alternatives that could be studied in order to employ them in field trails.

Keywords— chalkbrood, epidemiology, honeybees, host´s resistance, pathogen´s virulence.

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Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) Waste Processing to Obtain Chitin, Protein, and Astaxanthin-Enriched Extract

Abstract - Blue crab’ waste is a good source of valuable substances although only few studies are related to its use, especially concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis and recovery of compounds such as astaxanthin. Besides, the reuse of crab waste may reduce environmental pollution, add value to this residue and promote a social responsibility in several small fishery communities. Therefore, this study aimed to recover protein, chitin, and astaxanthin from blue crab waste by means of enzymatic hydrolysis with alcalase and bromelain. High hydrolysis efficiency, defined by hydrolysis degree (DH), was achieved with 3% alcalase (E/S), recovering 30% of protein in 120 minutes reaction. The highest extraction yield (3.1 ± 0.4% - w/w) and astaxanthin content (97.7 ± 14.3% μgastaxanthin/gresidue) were from demineralized sample under acid process (DERS), before carotenoid recovery. Thermogravimetric analysis of the sample with enzymatic deproteinization presented higher thermal stability and mass loss. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the blue crab processing waste proved to be efficient for the production of protein hydrolysates, mostly using 3% of alcalase enzyme related to the substrate (E/S). Additionally, it was possible to obtain chitin and astaxanthin-enriched extract from the hydrolyzed residue with enzymes, similar to what obtained through an alkaline deproteinization process and, consequently, promote improvements in the blue crab waste environmental management.

Keywords - Blue crab waste, Alcalase, Astaxanthin, Chitin, Protein.

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Experimental and Modeling Column Study of Phosphorus Removal by Permeable Reactive Materials

Abstract This study evaluates the performance of permeable reactive materials for phosphorus removal from water by experimental and model development. A one dimensional solute transport model that describes adsorption process in porous media by mass transfer equation and surface area reduction was developed. Validity of the model was evaluated using several data sets from batch and column experiments. The marble dust, standard sand and volcanic ash were utilized as permeable reactive barriers and porous materials inside packed columns in this research. It was found that the calcium (Ca) content was the most important characteristic of the permeable reactive materials and a factor determining their phosphorus removal efficiency. A high Ca content material showed higher removal capacity of phosphorus. The results of this study demonstrated that the marble dust sorbent has a high efficiency to remove phosphorus from aqueous solution. Comparing the performances of three packed columns filled up with different combinations of the three investigated materials, the differences in permeability played an important role in the treatment residence time and its ensuing effect on the removal efficiencies of phosphorus from water. A combination of 70% marble dust and 30% volcanic ash (as porous packed layers in one column) made a reasonable compromise between high steady phosphorus removal efficiency (~80%) and longevity (over 180 days). A suggestion/recommendation in conclusion was proposed based on these results.

Keywords column experiment, marble dust, phosphorus, reactive material, solute transport model.

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Study of Population Density Luffa Cylindrical at University of Baghdad

Abstract A study was conducted to determine the population density of the Leaves diggers liriomyzasativae in the Plant Protection Department, college of Agriculture - University of Baghdad, for the period from 01/02/2015 to 15/05/2015.

The study results showed that the highest density of hoof liriomyzasativae 2.7 digger / Leave dated 05/08/2015 and the lowest was 0.3 hoof /leave dated 01/02/2015, and the results showed the presence of three peaks of the pest Nilai starting from 27/2 and ends 3/4. It notes the fluctuation of population density of the hoof between the rise and fall, which dates back to the environmental conditions and the enemies of vital accompaniment of the pest, and the results showed the presence of the enemy's vital Neochrysocharisformosa (Westwood) (Eulophidae: Hymenoptera).

Keywords University of Baghdad, Population density, Leaves diggers liriomyzasativae, Plant Protection.

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Molecular mechanisms regulating storage root formation in plants

Abstract Storage roots are important for the growth and development in plants because they provide nutrients, water, and energy storage. Storage roots are also modulating growth direction, disease resistance, and root formation at the cellular and molecular level through interactions of genes and gene networks. However, molecular mechanisms regulating storage root formation in plants are not fully understood. In this review, we have overviewed transcriptional regulation of storage root formation, proteomic regulation of storage root formation, ethylene regulation of storage root formation, auxin regulation of storage root formation, gene expression regulation of storage root formation, and metabolism regulation of storage root formation. We have reviewed the basic regulatory principles of storage root formation from the network of genomics to proteomics and metabolism in plants that will be valuable to research work in storage root growth and development regulation at the molecular level.

Keywords Gene expression, post-transcriptional gene silencing, storage root development.

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Evaluation of Ornamental Coleus for Landscaping of Shady Areas

Abstract There is a strong desire amongst people to have colour in the shady areas of their landscapes. But shade-loving plants generally are not richly or brightly coloured. Ornamental coleus is an inconspicuous flower bearing ornamental plants which can act as a colorful option for shady landscape. Ornamental coleus is a promising ornamental foliage plant which provides a bold texture and a thick density for shady landscape. With this background, collection, conservation and evaluation of different ornamental coleus types / varieties carried out at ICAR-Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute, Goa. Twenty four different types / varieties of ornamental coleus have been collected, maintained and evaluated for their suitability for landscape use. Significant differences were observed among different coleus types / varieties for various morphological and quality parameters. Plant height , number of leaves, number of branches, Stem girth, Length of leaf with petiole, Petiole length, leaf width, Length of leaf without petiole varied from 42.00 cm (Juicy Lucy) -89.67 cm (Eruption), 24.89 (Gay Delight) -72.00 (Trailing Queen), 3.00 (Mahogany Giant) -8.67 (Eruption), 0.563 cm (Blusher) - 0.817 cm (Eruption), 11.03 cm (Tilt a Whirl) - 18.83cm (Grape expectations), 2.07 cm (Pistachio Nightmare) - 6.00 cm (Eruption), 5.50 cm(Trailing Queen)-10.83 cm(Grape expectations), 8.33cm(Tilt a Whirl) - 14.78 cm (Grape expectations) respectively. Different ornamental coleus used in the present study exhibited an incredible range of diversity for various traits and it could be recommended to function for various purposes in landscaping like beds, borders, hedges, planters, hanging baskets, vertical gardens or containers.

Keywords Coleus, Colour, Shade, Landscaping, Purpose.

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Removal of 137Cs from contaminated soil using pilot electrokinetic decontamination equipment

AbstractThe removal efficiencies of 137Cs for 10 days were 50-70%. The removal efficiencies according to the elapsed time after 10 days were reduced. When an electric current density of 25-75 mA/cm2, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid as electrolyte, a 0.5-2.0 cm/min hydraulic conductivity of soil were applied, respectively, the time required for the removal efficiency of 137Cs to reach 80% was 20-30 days. For improving removal efficiency of 137Cs from contaminated soil, it is necessary to increase an electric current density using sulfuric acid as an electrolyte and to decrease hydraulic conductivity of soil in the soil cell.

KeywordsDecontamination, Electrokinetic equipment, 137Cs, Soil, Removal Efficiency.

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Example of management of water resources for agricultural irrigation

Abstract Water is a natural resource vital to life, economic development and social welfare. The National Water Plan resulting from the transposition of the Water Framework Directive, has as an objective: benefit the existing irrigated, with the aim of making more efficient use of water, in particular, with regard to reducing losses, storage, transport and distribution of water, its application in soil and the rationalization of consumption. [1]. Portugal, in Aveiro, between Nazaré and Alcobaça council, has an area with a simple irrigation system for irrigation, called Cela hydro-agricultural profit.

Keywords irrigation, water, agriculture, Portugal, management.

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Production arrowroot depending on the size of the rhizome and substrate in Campo Grande –MS, Brazil

Abstract The arrowroot starch is much appreciated in the preparation of desserts, breads, cookies and cakes. However the production of starch by the commercial varieties is still made in an amateur way without proper management. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in factorial 3 (rhizomes sizes) x 2 (substrates). The three rhizome sizes arrowroot, were classified as small (≤ 15.0 g), medium (≥ 15.01 and ≤ 30.0) and big (≥ 30.01 g) according to their weights. We evaluated: height collect from the region to the apex of the leaf, stem diameter at the collar region survival percentage of rhizomes, shoot dry weight, root dry mass, average number of seedlings per rhizome and calculated the index quality seedlings Dickson. There were no differences in the interaction between plants x substrate. However the size of rhizomes influenced the quality of the seedlings, and the big (≥ 30.01 g) rhizomes was what produced seedlings with the best quality.

KeywordsMarantha arundinacea L., propagation, starch, ground.

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Reducing Postharvest Softening of Papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) by using an aqueous 1-Methylcyclopropene Application

Abstract The shelf life of ‘Maradol’ papaya fruit (Carica papaya) harvested at one-quarter stage maturity (yellow-orange color in 25% of fruit surface) and treated with aqueous 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was evaluated. The effects of immersion time (30 or 60 seconds) and dose response (50 or 300 ng∙kg-1) on the quality of papaya fruit stored for 12 days at 20 ± 2 °C and 85 ± 5% RH were studied. After 3 days, the control and fruit treated with 50 ng∙kg-1 1-MCP for 30 seconds lost 82% and 72% of the initial firmness, respectively. A 1-MCP concentration of 300 ng∙kg-1 for 30 or 60 seconds inhibited softening and slowed skin color change for 12 days. The pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids concentration ranged from 5.3-5.7, 0.06-0.12 % and 10-12 %, respectively. The shelf life of papaya was extended up to 3 days in fruit treated with 50 ng∙kg-1 1-MCP for either 30 or 60 seconds of immersion.

Keywords 1-MCP dipping treatment, color change, Carica papaya, ripening.

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