Wednesday, 2 August 2017

Agriculture Journal: July issue 2017

Effect of different Mulching Materials on the Yield of Quality Protein Maize in Danbatta Local Government Area, Kano State Nigeria

Abstract Field research was conducted on the effects of different mulching materials on the yield of Quantity protein maize which include polythene sheet, dry grasses and control. The different mulching materials were tested on nine (9) ridges each measuring 10m. The research was laid out in a completely randomized block design each treatment replicated three times. The parameters measured include weight of cobs, weight of 100grain, and total grain, there was no statistical difference in the weight cobs among all the treatments, similarly, there was also no statistical different in the weight of 100 grain. As far the weight of grain per 5m2 there was a significant difference among the treatments with polythene sheet covered plots that have 0.25kg, however, the grass-mulched plots 0.16kg was statistically similar to the control plots 0.15kg. And finally for store weight observed per 5m2, polythene sheet covered plots were significantly higher than grass-mulched plots which are also significantly different to control plots with the values of 1.23kg, 1.21kg and 0.71kg respectively.

Keywords Mulch, grain, store, cob, polythene.

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Influence of Mulch and Ridge-tie on Soil Moisture retention and early growth of maize at Jega, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Abstract Water is one of the main requirements for healthy plant growth. Most arid and semi-arid regions, however, suffer from insufficient and unreliable rainfall. The prevailing soils generally cannot absorb the amount of water which rainfalls in such a short time. Based on this and many other factors a study was carried out to determine the influence of mulch and ridge tie on moisture retention and early growth of maize, at the Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Teaching and Research Farm Jega. The results shows that on a short term basis ridge tying had the highest amount of moisture, while on the long terms basis mulch had the highest moisture content and maize plant height is also more observed in the mulched plots as compared to ridge-tie respectively with the value of 45cm- 75cm, and 39cm al 54cm at 3 al 5 WAP respectively al dry matter yield also give a similar trend.

Keywords Mulch, ridge-tie, Moisture, dry spell, climate, infiltration.

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Presence of herpesvírus in diseased fishes

Abstract Herpesviruses that infect fishes belong to the Herpesvirales order and Alloherpesvirus family. In these species, the different types of herpesvirus can cause tumors, adenocarcinoma and skin lesions. This study aims detect to presence of herpesvirus in fishes from commercial, recreation or experimental creations of the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. Organ fragments and lesions of 53 fish species coming of mortality cases were forwarded at Biological Institute for examination by transmission electron microscopy by research of etiological agent. By transmission electron microscopy through negative staining technique, were observed herpes virus-like particles in 46 fishes and through embedding resin technique, in ultrathin sections were visualized herpes virus immature particles, measuring 90-110nm in diameter, located in the nuclei and complete particles measuring 160nm. In the histopathology technique, lesions associated with the virus as corpuscles inclusion, papillomas, and dermal lesions and in the gills were observed in 27 fishes. The evaluated techniques of TEM and the histopathology were effective for the rapid detection of herpesvirus in the examined samples.

Keywords Disease, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, herpesvirus.

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Defensive mechanisms in Plants: The role of component plant cells in defense against biotic and abitic stresses

Abstract Plants are often exposed to various environmental stresses such as extreme temperatures, drought, and disease and pest attack. In natural systems, plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus posses a myriad of defense and have evolved multiple defense mechanisms by which they are able to cope with various kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses. In fact plants defense against stresses by different ways. The role of cellular organelles is very important in this way. Cell wall and their derivatives such as oligosaccharins as biochemical defenser or for example trichomes as mechanical defenser is the frontline of the plant defense system. Also Plants have evolved a multi-layered immune system that dynamically responds to pathogens alike cell membrane that is a key mediator of communication between plants and microbes. Cytoplasm and the membrane-bounded structures (organelles) defense against different kind of stresses. The role of cellular organelles in plant defense relate to their enzymes primarily. Enzymes such as proteases, esterases and ribonucleases in cytoplasm, PM H+-ATPases in plasma membrane or β glucosidases included cyanogenic glucosides, saponins, glucosinolates or DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) glucoside in ER are responsible for plant defense. Also ROSs plus SA and JA in chloroplast and mitochondria play an important role in immune plant system. In nucleus macromolecules including nucleoporins, importins, and Ran-GTP-related components, are essential to mount an efficient immune response in response to different pathogens. And in Golgi apparatus, peroxysomes and vacuoles, glycosyltransferases, myrosinase and hydrolytic enzymes are liable for plant defense respectively.

Keywords biotic and abiotic stresses; organells; plant defense.

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Food Security Production Challenges in Indonesia as Impact of Global Climate Change

Abstract Global food availability, including national as well as local, is highly dependent on the natural resources that will affect crop production. Although there is rain, soil temperatures and conditions have formed a natural system that will support agricultural efforts, but this state is unstable and always changes according to atmospheric conditions in an integrated manner. Human beings on certain boundaries can intervene with the natural resources.

Climate (generally a combination of rain, temperature, and sunlight) is the most important growth factor in crop production in the field. Any change in climatic conditions will have far-reaching effects on global food production.

Global climate change, excessive land and land exploitation, inaccurate land management, in its time will have an impact on the food production and availability of a region. Knowing well the of nature characteristics, then anticipating the impact that will arise and determine the ways of handling it, is a series of business and activities that must be done to achieve food security.

To anticipate climate change and its impacts on crop production, a broad outline can be made by considering the following physical technic aspects: 1) adjusting cropping patterns; 2) increasing the area of forest cover and catchment areas; 3) application of land and crop management technology. Some application of land and crop management technologies include: organic farming, implementation of Surjan system, food diversification, large tree planting, water pond production, etc.

The policies that need to be taken as a solution in anticipating the impact of global climate change are 1) the preparation and stipulation of special food agriculture scenarios, including the zoning of production potential and zonation of climate risk (drought, flood, landslide, etc.) with the updating of data every year; 2) reducing the conversion of agricultural land (food); 3) incentives for farmers; 4) changing the consumption pattern of the people, from the consumption of rice to alternative staple foods; 5) subsidies and protection of food farming; 6) climate monitoring and prediction (early rainy season, long growing period, and potential water availability; 7) Revitalization of watershed (DAS) functions; 8) Multiply the artificial water absorption area.

Keywords Climate Change, Food Security, Land and Crop Management, Watershed.

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Polyamine and ethylene changes during floral initiation in response to paclobutrazol in mango (Mangifera indica L.)

Abstract Use of paclobutrazol is common strategy for inducing uniform and profuse flowering in mango. The possible mechanism by which paclobutrazol exert such responses are less understood. The present investigation was carried out to investigate possible role of polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis in the paclobutrazol induced floral induction in mango. Following paclobutrazol soil drenching application (1.25 g a.i. m-1) to mango cv. Totapuri, the free polyamine contents, ethylene production, 1-amino cyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ACC oxidase activity were determined in the apical buds and leaves of growing shoots at 4 distinct bud developmental stages numerically characterized as 510 (initiation of bud swelling), 511 (swollen buds), 513 (bud burst) and 515 (panicle emergence) according to standard BBCH scale. The total free polyamines, spermidine and spermine contents increased and ethylene production, ACC content and ACC oxidase activity decreased in the buds and leaves of paclobutrazol treated as compared to untreated trees. In general under paclobutrazol treatment, buds accumulated more polyamines than the leaves. With respect to the bud growth stages, total free polyamines, spermidine and spermine were high at 510/511 stage both in the paclobutrazol treated and untreated trees which declined progressively as shoots approached panicle emergence stage (515). The ethylene production, ACC and ACC oxidase activity exhibited trends opposite to that of polyamines. The study showed that polyamine – ethylene balance may control paclobutrazol induced floral bud induction in mango and accumulation of polyamines-spermidine and spermine in buds appeared as an important factor in facilitating floral induction response.

Keywords Ethylene biosynthesis, mango flowering, paclobutrazol, polyamines.

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Development of a Compact, Highly-sensitive and Low-cost Biological Monitoring Method using Protozoa for Detecting Toxicants in Aquatic Environment

Abstract A novel method for biological monitoring to detect toxic substances in water was developed by using the protozoan Raphidiophrys contractilis as an indicator organism. In this system (named HELIOSENSOR), the adhesion of R. contractilis to the substratum was used as a measure of the health of the living organisms. A flow-through type chamber was designed for toxicity testing, in which cells that had been damaged by harmful materials were flushed away by the water flow. The number of protozoa was continuously monitored with a digital camera. The test results revealed that this monitoring system has high durability and efficiency compared with other bio-monitoring systems, enabling us to make a quicker and easier detection of toxic substances. This system showed particularly high sensitivity to heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, lead and cadmium. Due to high sensitivity (ex. ~ 10-7 M for Hg2+), fast response time (<20 min) and small size (30×14×20 cm), this system has distinct advantages over other conventional biomonitoring systems using multicellular animals such as fish and crustaceans.

Keywords biomonitoring, heliozoa, protist, water quality control.

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Effect of tillage practices on moisture retention and maize (Zea mays L.) performance under rainfed conditions in Swaziland

Abstract- An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of tillage practices on moisture retention and maize performance under rainfed conditions in Swaziland. The five treatments were based on structure of seedbed and seed planting method. They were ; zero tillage where jab planter was used to directly seed (JAB), tractor drawn planter to directly seed without ploughing (TDSS), tractor drawn cultivator to loosen soil followed by planting with tractor planter (TDRDS), planting basics made by using hand hoe (PLB) and conventional tillage (CNT) which was used as a control. The treatments were replicated three times. The data collected included weather data, germination counts, plant height, moisture retention, total dry matter and dry grain yield. The results displayed a significant difference in terms of moisture retention for the majority of the periods where measurements were done (p<0.05). Conventional tillage retained the least moisture while JAB retained the most moisture. In terms of seed emergence, TDRDS had the highest emergence during the first seven days compared to the other treatments. Conventional tillage had the tallest plants (268.5 cm) compared to the other treatments at 21 days after planting. Conventional tillage also had the highest total dry matter (16.2 tons/ha) and planting basins had the lowest dry matter (12.6 tons/ha). TDRDS had the highest grain yield (9.9 tons/ha), and JAB had the lowest grain yield (9.1 tons/ha). The difference in mean total dry matter and mean grain yield was not significant (p>0.05).

Keywords-Germination, maize, moisture, tillage, yields.

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Effect of interaction between different plant growth regulators on in vitro shoot multiplication of Citrus latifolia Tan. (persian lime)

Abstract In this paper a shoot multiplication is described for Citrus latifolia Tan. (persian lime) using nodal segment explants of young one – old – year trees by two different pathways contain with and without callusing phase. The best result for multiple shoot formation and regenerated shoot formation was 3.2 and 2.6 shoots per explants with 4.44 µM BA plus 0.053 µM NAA and 4.44 µM BA plus 0.049 µM IBA respectively. Alike shoot regeneration, shoot elongation was occurred in medium with 4.44 µM BA and 0.049 µM IBA. Micropropagated and regenerated plants are under other experiments.

Abbreviation: BA – 6 benzylaminopurine; IBA – Indole acetic acid; NAA – Naphtalene acetic acid; PGRs – Plant Growth Regulators.

Key Words: Persian lime; plant growth regulators; shoot multiplication.

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Review on Management of Hospital Waste in An Efficient Manner

Abstract This is a review paper which is prepared from the surveys of hospitals and research studies. Hospital waste management in the world is a strict discipline and does occupy a serious place in the management of health care sector. The management of hospital remaining requires its removal and disposal from the health care establishments as hygienically and economically as possible by methods that all stages minimizes the risk to public health and to environment. Health care waste can be dangerous, if not done properly. Poor management of healthcare waste exposes health labors, waste handlers, and the community to the toxic effects of wastes generated from health activity. The disposal of these wastes could also lead to environmental problems. This article intends to describe various health care wastes and its controlling, as creating good practices for proper handling and disposal of health care waste is an important part of the health care delivery system. The aim of this paper is to highlight the present condition of medical waste and a review on scientific method of hospital waste management.

Keywords Environmental problems, Hazardous waste, Hospital waste management, Medical waste, waste generation.

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Sources of Risk and Management Strategies among Farmers in Rice Post Harvest Management in Niger State, Nigeria

Abstract The study examined sources of risk and management strategies among farmers in rice post harvest management in Niger State. The research was undertaken in five Local Government Areas of Niger State, namely Katcha, Lavun, Paikoro, Shiroro and Wushishi. Data obtained for the research was achieved through questionnaires administered to 200 farmers selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.

The study showed that rice post harvest management is carried out by subsistence farmer with average farm size of 2.7ha and are of active productive age of 31-50 years, who have 24 years farming experience in the rice post harvest management. The study revealed that farmers in the study area are affected by production risk, financial risk, human or personal risk, market or price risk and technological risk sources. The farmers have adopted prevention, mitigation and coping with risk as management strategies. Based on the findings the study recommended provision of credit facilities, rice post harvest machineries at subsidized rate, rural infrastructures, cooperative formation, use of extension officer and proper storage facilities.

Keywords Risk Management, Strategies, Rice, Farmers.

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Technical efficiency in rain-fed maize production in Adamawa state Nigeria: Stochastic approach

Abstract The study analysed the technical efficiency of rain-fed maize cultivation in Adamawa state, Nigeria using stochastic approach. The study was based on primary data collected from 140 respondents using simple random sampling for the period of 2014-15 Kharifmaize. The result reveals that resources were under-utilized in rain-fed maize cultivation in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Moreover, the mean technical efficiency of 0.69 indicates that an average farmer in the study area have the scope for increasing technical efficiency by 31 per cent in short-run under the existing technology. The study therefore, recommends that government should pay more attention on the land consolidation programme. It will help farmers to adopt improved agronomic practices and enhance the production and productivity of rain-fed maize production in Adamawa state.

Keywords Technical efficiency, Inefficiency parameters, Rain-fed Maize, Data, Random sampling.

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Priority of Water Supply Service for Community in Gresik City, East Java Province

Abstract— Water supply is one of important aspect and a priority in urban planning. The fulfillment of a water supply necessity for Gresik City is still not optimized. Gresik City consists of 2 districts, namely Gresik District and Kebomas District. Based on ministerial regulation 14/2010, coverage of water supply service at Gresik City was classified as bad with water supply service rate less than 50%. Hence, for the sake of optimizing and equity of water supply service at Gresik City, the identification of water supply service ratio of Gresik City and community’s perception of water supply service was needed. The research objective was to identify water supply service priority for community at Gresik City. The ratio analysis was done by calculation method based on water supply necessity and availability standard. While, the analysis of water supply service based on community’s perception was done by descriptive statistical analysis. The results showed that the highest ratio of water supply service was on Kroman Sub-District and the lowest ratio of water supply service was on Tenggulunan Sub-District. Based on community’s perception analysis, there are 93% of Gresik District residents and 75% of Kebomas District residents that haven’t used PDAM (local water supply company) water supply service. Furthermore, water supply service wasn’t optimized yet in term of water quality, quantity, continuity, so that the handling of water supply service was focused on sub-district with lowest water supply service ratio.

Keywords Service, water supply, Gresik City, Community.

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Agriculture journal: June Issue 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-6, June 2017

Assessment of Post-Harvest Loss and Waste for Date Palms in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abstract Estimated dates loss at harvest time include shees & besr, eating by birds, falling, insects and dust mite, and healthy fruits of three cultivars from the date palm orchards in al-Ahsa Oasis (Khalas, Shishi and Ruzeize), in Al-Qaseem (Sukkary, Khudry and Segae), in Madinah (Safawi, Anbara, Ajweh). In Riyadh (Khalas, Sagei and Nabtet Seif). The highest losses during harvest time in Al-Ahsa were in Khals, then comes Shishi then Ruzeize. In Qaseem, the least affected variety was Sukkari, then Khudri then Segae. In Medina, Anbara was the most affected variety then comes Safawi then Ajweh. In Riyadh, the most affect variety was Nabtet Seif then comes Khalas then Segae. The average level of loss during the marketing phase was about 5-10 % in most varieties and locations except Ajweh in Riadh (<5%), and Shagra in Qassem (16-20%). The major causes of waste were the dates’ small size, and cuts and browses.

Photography analysis showed that dates are dramatically affected by various pest infestation and non-pathological disorders. The average of general dates disorders or dates damages was 12.6%, which represents the percentage of dates loss of most commonly ones in the major date production regions in Saudi Arabia. In addition, eleven dates variety commercially available were collected at Alahsa dates retail market which produced by the major production regions; Alahsa, Riyadh, Qaseem and Madina. The data showed that the average of general dates disorders or dates damage were the highest for Shishi and Shbibi in AlAhsa (33%), while the lowest was for Ajweh in Medina (2.7% only).

Keywords— Post-Harvest Loss, Waste, Date Palms, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, harvest time.

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Hydrogen Bonding - The Key to Desalination (A Review)

Abstract Energy crisis today is a major matter of concern. Energy is the most essential ingredient in the process of economic growth and development. The search for alternative sources for various unit operations such as evaporation, drying, distillation, etc. has been in continuum but without much success. Industries being the major consumers of energy, its efficient usage and minimal wastage are of profound importance.

ETPs or Effluent Treatment Plants are one of the components of a majority of the industry where a lot of energy is consumed. In every ETP, separate equipments are present to treat salt water. Desalination techniques such as Flash and Multi Effect Distillation in thermal, Electro dialysis and Reverse Osmosis (RO) in membrane category and many other processes such as freezing and humidification are used. For instance RO today is the most commonly used method for desalination. But the problem that accompanies it is that RO rejects concentrated brine solution every time it is used. This massive tonnage of salt water is then sent through a set of Multi-Effect Evaporators which not only increases the cost but majorly increases the energy requirement. The real problem with all the methods used is the need optimum economic designs and higher efficiency requirements thus making it both eco-friendly and economical for the industry. Modifications and innovations such as Incorporation of vacuum in humidification system increases the evaporation rate of water due to reduction in boiling point. In Electrodialysis, ion exchange resins are incorporated between the electrodes which help separate out ions into continuous streams. These provide continuity to the process and also enhance its rate. But still the need for energy turns out to be the major issue. This paper suggests an alternative innovative technique reduction in h bonding of water that can virtually eliminate the excessive energy needs in these processes.

Keywords Desalination, RO, Electrodialysis, Humidification, Solvents.

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Comparative Analysis of the proximate Composition of palmyrah pinattu and flours (Odiyal, Boiledodiyal)

Abstract Palmyrah (Borassusflabellifer) fruit is mostly used as fresh fruit, because of its perishable nature it is traditionally preserved as dried fruit pulp called as pinattu (fruit leather). It contained pectin as well as contain appreciable amount of saponinbecause of that fruit pulp having important medicinal properties. Considering these facts the phytochemical constituents of solvent extracts of pinattuwas identified and evaluated. Samples was collected from the three different branches ofPalmyrah Development Board.

Pinattu, boiled odiyal flour and odiyal flour contained 16.6±(0.008), 11.66±(0.001), 10.66±0.001 g/100g of moisture, 2.23±0.062, 6.51±0.062, 6.7813±0.06 g/100g of protein, 0.08±0.001, 0.28±0.008, 0.43±0.013 g/100g of Fat, 0.04±0.001, 0.02±0.0003, 0.02±0.0002 g/100g of Ash, 5.06±0.01, 7.13±0.18, 4.49±0.15 g/100g of crude fiber and (75.91±0.61, 74.37±0.65, 77.59±0.5 g/100g of carbohydrate respectively. There were significant different (p<0.05) between the each samples for all the nutrient content except moisture content.

Keywords Pinattu, Odiyalflour, Boiled odiyal flour, Nutritional.

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Continuously flow microwave pre-treatment for enhanced anaerobic biodegradability of dairy industry sludge

Abstract Our research has focused on the investigation of the applicability of continuously flow microwave pre-treatment process for anaerobic digestion of dairy industry sludge. In the continuously flow operation effects of microwave specific process parameters, i.e. specific irradiated energy and microwave power level, were examined on the biogas yield and anaerobic digestion rate. Furthermore, the efficiency of process was characterized based on energetic analysis, as well. Our results show, that depend on the irradiated energy level the microwave power has effect on biogas yield, and determine the biodegradation rate, as well. Higher energy irradiation or higher power has been manifested in enhanced anaerobic digestion, but over a certain value of them led to worsened methane content. Considering the results obtained from energetic analysis can be concluded, that microwave pre-treatment followed by anaerobic digestion is efficient if irradiated energy was kept lower level (100 kJ L-1, in present experiments) with microwave power levels of 536 W, or 700W, respectively. Too high energy intensity at high power level, or too low microwave power, independently from the extent of irradiated energy, led to higher energy demand of pre-treatment, than can be recovered as energy content of surplus biogas.

Keywords anaerobic digestion, biogas, energy efficiency, microwave, sludge.

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Preservative Effects of Different Treatments and Their Flavor Acceptability in Cashew Apple and Pineapple Blend Juice

Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the stability of a cashew apple and pineapple blend juice (25:75 v / v). Various treatments were applied, including pasteurization (92 C, 15 min), aqueous extract of ginger (2.5 and 10%) and potassium sorbate (1g/kg). The physicochemical results revealed that the addition of the aqueous extract of ginger caused an increase in the content of ascorbic acid, total sugars, proteins and minerals such as magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and zinc. The microbiological analysis showed lower microbial counts of the treated samples compared to the control. The different treatments could have an antimicrobial effect. The sensory analysis reveals a general acceptability for all the samples formulated. This acceptability value is higher for the sample supplemented with 10% aqueous extract of ginger. With a view to preservation without chemical preservatives while improving nutrient content, the 10% aqueous ginger extract could help extend the shelf life of fruit juice drinks.

Keywords Drink, pineapple, cashew apple, preservatives, quality.

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Utilization of Marginal Soils with Application of Phosphorus and Ethephon for Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) cultivation

Abstract Abundance of marginal soils is among the major constraint to achieve high yield for crop production due to unsuitable physical and chemical properties of the soils. Commonly, farmers would manage the marginal soil by adding soil amendment, compost and fertilizer which increase the cost of production. Alternatively, application of fertilizer together with plant growth regulator (PGR) during crop management can be practiced to utilize the marginal soil effectively. The aim of this experiment was to determine effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer and PGR namely ethephon on growth performance of sweet corn grown in three marginal soils namely Rasau, Kuah and Dampar. The treatments were arranged as factorial randomized complete block design with four rates of P fertilizer and standard rate of ethephon replicated four times. The results indicated that the physical properties of the marginal soils vary which Rasau dan Kuah series have low content of silt (10.30% and 36.10%), respectively and clay (9.40% and 11.86%) while Dampar series has low sand content (21%). Consequently, Dampar series depicted highest soil moisture content (18.80%) compared to Rasau and Kuah with high content of silt and clay at 42.43% and 36.43%, respectively. At tasseling stage, where application of P fertilizer with combination of ethephon at 0 and 15 kg P2O5 ha-1 there were significant difference between soil series on root length, total biomass wet and dry weight but exception for total biomass dry weight at 0 kg P2O5 ha-1. Moreover, at 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 there were significant difference among soil series on leaf number and total biomass dry weight whereas at highest P rate of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 only root length and root volume were affected. Most of the results were observed highest on Rasau soil series which contain highest sand particle instead of silt and clay compared to Kuah and Dampar series. However, the addition of ethephon and several P rates did not affect plant height among soil series. The results suggest that, the marginal soil can be utilized for sweet corn production by addition of combined P fertilizer at low rate and PGR.

Keywords— Zea mays L. saccharata, marginal soil, phosphorus, ethephon, plant growth.

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Evolution of the fruit market in the city of Lavras-Minas Gerais-Brazil

AbstractFruit growing has achieved advances through the use of new technologies generated by research. In Brazil, it is one of the most prominent sectors in agribusiness, achieving significant results and generating business opportunities. In this way, the fruit market has grown considerably in the last decades, both in quantity and in quality. Allied to this, the changes in consumer behavior regarding food consumption has been responsible for the increase of the fruit market. The objective of this work was to know the evolution of the fruit trade in the city of Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to the quantity sold, monetary value, losses in the gondolas of retail establishments and per capita consumption of the population of this city.

KeywordsMarket, Fruits, Consumption, food, Brazil.

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Technical Efficiency of Soya Beans Production in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the technical efficiency of soya bean production in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to examine the inputs and output relationship of soya bean production in the study area. A multi stage random sampling techniques was used to select 80 respondents in the study area who were noted for soya beans production. Primary data were collected from the respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire and were analyzed using stochastic frontier function. It was therefore recommended that inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and agrochemicals which were the major inputs that increase the output of soya bean production in the study area should be made available on time, in right amounts and at affordable prices to the farmer’s stakeholders in agriculture. Proper orientation and knowledge should be given to people willing to go into the cultivation of soya beans on the appropriate time of planting. Extension services should also be rendered effectively.

Keywords— Soya Beans production, Adamawa state, Nigeria, Mubi north, Nigeria.

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The effect of organic mulch on the growth and yield of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L)

Abstract An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland to determine the effect of organic mulch on the growth and yield of spinach. The experiment was conducted between the months of January and February, 2017. The experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD), with treated sewage mulch (TSM) and organic compost mulch (OCM) as treatments. The no mulch (NML) was used as a control. Spinach seedlings were planted at a spacing of 15 cm within rows and 30 cm between rows. Weeding and pest control measures were done uniformly across the treatments, when and as required. The data collected included the percentage moisture retained by the different treatments on the soil, growth parameters (leaf width, leaf length, leaf number, leaf area, plant height) and yield at harvest. The results displayed a significant difference (P<0.05) between the treatments in terms of the moisture retention properties. Organic compost mulch recorded the highest mean percentage moisture retention (22.9%), followed by treated sewage mulch (20.9%) and no mulch recorded the lowest percentage moisture retention in the soil (14.4%). All the growth parameters were higher for spinach growth under TSM, followed by that grown under OCM. They were lowest under spinach grown under no mulch. The differences in mean for parameters were significant (p<0.05). The yield also varied across the treatments as TSM had a dry mass of 43.0 g, followed by OCM at 23.4 g and the no mulch treatment recorded a dry mass of 20.9 g. The results showed that mulching improved the performance of the spinach plants in terms of plant growth, moisture retention and yield.

KeywordsCompost, mulch, organic, sewage, spinach.

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Long term effect of integrated nutrient management on soil properties and availability of nutrients in a Typic Hapludalfs under maize-wheat cropping

Abstract To study the long term effect of integrated nutrient management on soil properties and available nutrients, surface and subsurface soil samples were drawn from the long-term field experiment (LTFE) which is in progress on a Typic Hapludalfs at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, CSK HPKV, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India since Rabi, 1972. The rotation followed was maize-wheat and the treatments included various combinations of N, P, K, Zn, lime, hand weeding and farm yard manure. Results from the study showed that integrated nutrient management over the years resulted in improvement in the soil properties as well as status of available nutrients in the soil at both the depths. Continuous application of urea as a source of N has resulted in acidification of soils (pH 4.3) while lime application increased the pH to 6.2 in the surface soil and 6.0 in subsurface soil. The treatment 100 % NPK + FYM resulted in 66 per cent increase in soil organic carbon content over initial value. Similar effects were recorded on cation exchange capacity and available nutrients. It can be concluded from the study that integrated nutrient management is essential to maintain soil health.

Keywords Integrated nutrient management, soil properties, long-term effect.

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Agriculture Journal- May Issue 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-5, May 2017

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.): Land use/land cover changes and community-based management in east Shoa zone, Ethiopia

Abstract Water hyacinth was officially reported in Ethiopia in 1956 at Koka Dam and Awash River and it is considered as a constraint to the development of the country. Thus, this study was undertaken to determine Water hyacinth and associated land cover/use changes, and capture perceptions regarding community-based management to enhance its proper control/eradication in Lume and Boa districts, east Shoa zone, Ethiopia using integrated approach. The method of study included Water hyacinth and associated land use/cover change analyses, focus group discussions, discussions with experts at the district, zone and region levels and undertaking consultative workshop. The land use/land cover change analyses revealed increased area coverage by Water hyacinth from about 145.53 ha in 1986 to 2319.48 ha in 2015 with decline in the area of water bodies and wetlands. The annual rate of increase in the area of the weed was about 51.51% while water bodies and wetlands declined by about 0.49% and 1.16%, respectively. Of the 10 group discussions undertaken in the study districts with the communities, 9 of them reported water hyacinth to increase in terms of area coverage since its appearance in their areas which concurs the results obtained from satellite image analyses and they reported the weed to be very harmful to their livelihood. Furthermore, the nine group discussants disclosed water hyacinth to be of no use to them. Recommendations included developing comprehensive management strategies and action plans, analysis and defining roles of each stakeholder, awareness creation, training, institutional linkages, co-management and reduction of nutrient load in water bodies.

Keywords Co-management, control/eradication, Integrated approach, Lume and Bora districts.

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Improvement of Crop Production by Means of a Storage Effect

Abstract This study summarizes the results of 30 years of our experiments with Vicia faba L seeds. Our long-term practical observations of different Vicia faba L. cultivars points out the method useful for the higher yield of seeds in terms of their viability and thus higher crop production.

Our experiments led to the following important findings regarding of seed viability:

  1. Individual and group variability of seeds;
  2. Storage condition before germination; and
  3. The condition of their germination.

All these three influential conditions is possible to optimalize by method of storage effect described in this our report resulting in the improvement of crop production. This is especially important in case of seeds that are rare and/or expensive, i.e. seeds that are genetically modified or with rearranged karyotypes.

Keywords seed color, higher germination, improvement of viability, higher crop production.

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Temperature effect on seed germination of four plants in sand from coastal sand dunes in Greece

Abstract In high temperatures of coastal sand dunes, salt may limit seed germination and thus strogly limit plant survival. The relationship between germination and sand dunes soil temperatures has never been evaluated. The effect of coastal dunes sands on plant germination at 20°C and 28°C was studied. Sand samples of coastal dunes from coastline regions in Greece were analyzed and used as substrates. The Si content (89-97%) is the representative one in all soils. The Si, Al and Mg contents in the Aegean Sea sand dunes were higher than the Ionian Sea. Pigweed germination at 28°C in sand from mainland Greece was higher than the corresponding one from insular Greece. Purslane germination at 28°C in sand from the Ionian Sea (52%-57%) was higher than the corresponding one from the Aegean Sea (49%-50%) and at 20°C it remained unaffected by the soil. Chervil and coriander germination at 20°C was very low, while no germination occurred in pigweed at 20°C and chervil and coriander at 28°C in all sand soils. The study has shown that the coastal dune soils favoured germination of pigweed and purslane at 28°C. These results indicate that those plants have adapted to the coastal sand dunes environment.

Keywords sand elements, pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), purslane (Portulaca oleracea), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), coriander (Coriandrum sativum).

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E-screen assay validation: evaluation of estrogenic activity by MCF7 cell culture bioassay, in drinking water from different watersheds in state of São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract— Natural and synthetic estrogens have been detected in rivers, lakes and estuaries in many parts of the world. Primary sources of these compounds are domestic and industrial effluents, which are not deleted after the water treatment. Estrogen has been the endocrine disruptor most researched to be very active biologically and be the etiologic agent of diverse types of cancer and other conditions such as endometriosis, precocious puberty, feminization, masculinization, sterility. In this context, we use water of 36 natural reservoirs or dams, in a bioassay to characterize their estrogenicity in culture of MCF7 cells and obtained high concentration of estrogen in samples taken in Ibiúna and Equestrian Santo Amaro / SP. However, certain concentration in our samples for most water samples from different regions was very close to the limit of quantification by bioassay and estrogen was in fmol. It has been shown that e - screen assay with MCF7 cells is a sensitive and stable tool for quantitative analysis of estrogenicity of water and can easily be developed and implemented for routine for estrogen quantification also in animal food and man, aqueous and plastics etc.

Keywords endocrine disrupters, estrogen, breast cancer cells, (MCF7) bioassay: E-screen assay.

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Antifungal activity of lichen extracts and usnic acid for controlling the saprolegniasis

AbstractAquatic oomycetous fungi often cause serious damage to fresh water fishes. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts of three fruticose lichens namely, Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladonia rangiferina and Usnea longissima were investigated against three pathogenic oomycete fungi which can cause serious saprolegniasis: Saprolegnia parasitica, Achlya bisexualis and Pythium sp.. Usnic acid was also examined for antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration of usnic acid and lichen extracts for the tested fungi Saprolegnia parasitica and Achlya bisexualis were 2 mg L-1, 200 mg L-1 respectively. The higher concentration was needed to inhibit mycelial growth of Pythium sp.. The result suggests that the potential of using usnic acid and lichen extracts for controlling the saprolegniasis.

Keywordsantifungal activity, lichen, Oomycota, saprolegniasis, usnic acid.

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Simultaneous Estimation of Multiple Dairy Technologies Uptake

Abstract The low productivity of the Ethiopian diary sector has been explained by the genetic potentials and management practices. Milk production and consumption largely rely on the indigenous cows. To enhance the contribution of dairy to household food security, nutrition and income, adoption of improved dairy breeds together with the component practices is indispensable. To study the adoption of the dairy technologies and the factors stimulating the choices, a cross-sectional household survey was conducted in the central and eastern Ethiopia. Results declare that the rate of adoption of improved breeds, artificial insemination and improved forage remained to be limited. The uptake of concentrate feeding is found to be relatively better. As the joint multivariate probit estimation confirmed, there is complementarity and interdependence in the uptake of improved breeds, artificial insemination, concentrate feeds and improved forages. Utilization of forage lagged behind to complement adoption of improved cows. Tobit model determination confirmed that the same factors are affecting the adoption decisions. The factors responsible for the joint adoptions, the number of cows owned and intensity of adoption include education status, household wealth, access to markets and district centers, contacts with extension and gender roles. Both the joint and individual analyses highlighted the need for strategies that could overcome the constraints and ensure better uptake of the technologies.

Keywords productivity; adoption; joint estimation; complementarity; adoption intensity; responsible factors.

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Association of Hygiene Hypothesis with High prevalence of Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases: FMT industry

AbstractPrevalence of Allergy and Autoimmune Diseases are high in developed countries, but not in developing countries. Helminth infection were associated with lower level of allergy but the mechanism is not yet clear. In hygiene countries like UK, Japan and Korea, Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) has gained interest as novel therapy and prevention and reach to medicine industrial manufactures. This study will support it by associate Hygiene Hypothesis (HyHy) and the high prevalence of Allergy and Autoimmune Disease. Systematic review and Bayesian network analysis in EBSCO host search engine were used. Result from dynaMed Evidence Based, Point-of-care Reference e Journals: Dentistry, Medical and Nursing has describe 9 literatures support the association of Hy-hy/parasite infection with Allergy and/ or Autoimmune Diseases: 2 publications of meta-analysis are chosen and supported by 5 cross sectional, longitudinal, cause-effect design, and 2 clinical and animal trial. Conclusions: Low-middle-high income countries has a life style of Hyhy pattern support FMT industrial medicine and travelling to developing countries with broad diversity bacteria and worm in therapeutic and prevention potential, supported by sub-saharan and tropical rainforest developing countries.

KeywordsHygiene hypothesis, allergy, autoimmune diseases, FMT industrial medicine, traveling to developing countries.

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Scientific research contribution to fruticulture development

Abstract - This study aimed to evaluate the research contribution on development of peach, apple and guava crops in Campos das Vertentes region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was developed in two stages: the first one by consulting web of science base, where articles about these three fruit were being sought. The search for articles related to selected fruits was performed by ten key identification variables for each one of the following technologies: cultivars, seedlings, dormancy, pruning, fruit thinning, fruit protection/bagging, irrigation, harvesting, post-harvest and commercialization. The second stage was carried out by means of interviews with the peach, apple and guava producers in Barbacena, São João Del Rei and Lavras respectively, which were selected for being development poles of this region. The results were tabulated separately for the first stage and the second stage, confronted the results of interviews with the search of articles. It was concluded that research and technology generation has contributed to the development of peach, apple and guava crops in Campo das Vertentes area.

Key words: Innovation, Research, Fruit growing.

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Biotermiticides to Protect the Soil Health

Abstract Chemical termiticides are hazardous to biotic and abiotic factors in the environment and hence banned in US and European countries but are still in use in developing countries. They are applied in huge quantity reaching to potable water ways, food, and fodder and killing soil microbiological components. It has been observed from the study that these hazardous termiticides can be replaced by ecofriendly and cheap Biotermiticides made from the plant based oils. Four tree borne oils (CNSL(50-100%), Neemseed oil(10-25%), Karanj seed oil(10-25%) and Markingnut oil(10-25%) and three chemicals Chlorpyrifos(10-50%), Coppernaphthenate(10-50%) and (Boric acid(10-50%) were used in different proportions to formulate CNSL based termiticides. Specimen samples were treated and exposed to termites for 60 days. The mass loss after 60 days was noted and results were analyzed. Chlorpyrifos and Coppernaphthenate 100% have shown better termite control property than boric acid. Commercial termiticides their own might be effective against termite but except Chlorpyrifos and other two have shown not much promising results in CNSL based formulation when compared with the oil formulations. It was observed that CNSL(50-80%) + NO (10-25%) + BSL(10-25%) and CNSL(50-80%) + NO(10-25%) + KO(10-25%) formulations can act as an effective termiticides. All four oils if used 100% have shown good resistant against termites.

Keywords CNSL- Cashew nut shell liquid, NO- Neemseed oil, KO- Karanj oil, BSL- Bhilawan shell liquid.

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Effect of Concentration of Silver Nanoparticles on the Uptake of Silver from Silver Nanoparticles in Soil

Abstract— The bioavailability and uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles in soil was investigated. Two species of insects, Acheta domesticus and Tenebrio molitor, and two species of plants, Helianthus annuus and Sorghum vulgare, were exposed to a range of concentrations of silver nanoparticles in soil. Silver nanoparticles were charactrized by techniques including transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffraction. The concentration of silver in insects and plants exposed to silver nanoparticles was measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The results suggested an increase in the levels of silver in both insects and plants as a function of increasing concentrations of silver nanoparticles in soil. The translocation of silver to various parts of dicot plants such as stems and leaves was also observed. Such a result was not observed in the case of monocot plants. Results from this study suggests that silver nanoparticles would be available for uptake by insects and plants in terrestrial ecosystems.

Keywords— Silver nanoparticles, Acheta domesticus, Tenebrio molitor, Helianthus annuus, Sorghum vulgare, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

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Monday, 1 May 2017

Agriculture journal: IJOEAR: april 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-4, April 2017

Influence of amino acids, bleed grape and seaweed extract on vegetative growth, yield and its quality of fig

Abstract This study was conducted during the growing season of 2016 in a private orchard at AL-Abbasyia, Najaf Governorate on the local fig cv. Aswod Diala. The trees were spraying with amino acids (Amister and Gusto) at concentrations of 500 mg / L each other; Bleed of grape 100% and seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum at concentrations of 4% in single way or in combination at 15 march and 15 May, 2016. Results showed that spraying with amino acids, bleed grape and seaweed extract treatments and their interactions caused a significant increase percentage of leaf area, total chlorophyll, length of shoots, percentage of carbohydrate in branches, percentage of nitrogen in branches, percentage of carbohydrate / nitrogen in branches, percentage of nitrogen in leaves, percentage of phosphor in leaves, percentage of potassium in leaves, diameter of fruit, length of fruit, weight of fruit, percentage humidity of fruit, percentage dray matter of fruit, number of days to ripening, percentage of total soluble sold, fruit firmness and total yield of trees compared with control treatment . There were significant differences between above mentioned treatments. The Bleed of grape was more effective than amino acids(Amister and Gusto) and seaweed in that respect, but the combination of amino acids(Amister and Gusto), Bleed of grape and seaweed gave the best results in the treatment ( Am + Gu+ Bg + Bs ) for the season of experiment.

Keywords Amino acids, Bleed of grape, Seaweed extract, fig trees.

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Implementation of histopathological techniques and transmission electron microscopy for research of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine

Abstract— Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a fastidious bacterium, an important member of swine respiratory disease complex, like Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia, affecting the non-specific defense mechanism of the respiratory tract, high mucociliary system, predisposing the pigs to secondary pathogens. The objective of this study is to implement precise diagnostic techniques for identification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. 19 swine lungs fragments were collected from slaughterhouses and submitted by histopathological techniques. The presence of mucocellular exudate in 78.94% of the samples was observed in the bronchi and bronchioles, absence of eyelashes in 63.15% and lymphoid tissue hyperplasia associated with the bronchus in 42.10%. In pulmonary parenchyma, thickening of alveolar wall and interstitial bronchopneumonia were observed in 68.42%, hemorrhage in 47.36%, which 36.84% had hemosiderin and 15.78% lung consolidation. The presence of mycoplasma by the negative staining technique was identified in all samples, also the labeling of epitopes by colloidal gold immunostaining, using monoclonal antibody. In immunohistochemistry techniques and in situ hybridization, the labeled epitope and genome were observed confirming the presence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in the State of São Paulo. Therefore, the bronchial epithelium is the best tissue to collect the sample for an accurate diagnosis and the best method of diagnosis is the negative staining technique for screening and colloidal gold immunocytochemistry techniques to identify Mycoplasma species.

KeywordsMycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia, Immunochistochemistry and Hybridization.

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Quantifying the relative impact of physical and human factors on the viticultural expression of terroir

Abstract— This work assesses the relative importance of the terroirs factors: climate, soil and the relation source-sink, on the vegetative development, yield, berry composition and plant sanitary status.

The study was carried out between 2011 and 2014 in nine vineyards from six viticultural regions over the coast of Río de la Plata (Uruguay). The cultivar studied was Tannat, vertically trellised and north-south oriented. The year effect refers to climate, which was characterized using solar irradiation and three indices. The soil was characterized using pits and physico-chemical analyses, to determine three textural categories and to define soil depth and water availability. The source-sink relationship referred to four categories of relations between leaf surface and yield per vine. Statistical analyses included a Mixed Model with random effects to determine the relative importance of each factor to the total variability within the dataset.

Total yield per vine was explained by the source-sink relationship, the year and their interaction, both linked to the rainfall amount occurred during the maturation period. The synthesis of primary compounds in the berries was more dependent on the year and the interaction of soil and year with the source-sink relationship. Secondary compound concentrations in the berry depended mainly on the source-sink relationship and climate.

This study represents a significant advance to the knowledge of grapevine adaptation to the Río de la Plata terroirs, assigning a fundamental role to the vine grower actions. The growers can modulate grapevine balance as a function of the environment.

Keywords berry composition, soil, Tannat, terroir, yield.

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Land use and water quality in two sub-basins

Abstract The study evaluated the effects of land use and occupation in water quality in two sub-basins located in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The first sub-basin has 69.8% of native vegetation (natural) and the other has 54.1% of the land cultivated (anthropic). Samples were collected from April to December 2015, analyzing the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity, color, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and fecal coliforms. The natural sub-basin presented, significantly, better water quality. Total phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand and fecal coliforms exceeded the legal limits on the anthropic sub-basin. At this sub-basin correlation was found between cumulative rainfall of five days with turbidity and fecal coliforms, two days cumulative rainfall and total nitrogen, as well as between air and water temperature, affecting the dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity and fecal coliforms. In the natural sub-basin correlation was found between cumulative rainfall of two days and turbidity, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity.

Keywords agriculture, native vegetation, watershed.

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Mycotoxin production by entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus

Abstract Qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected mycotoxins has been performed in extracts of Conidiobolus coronatus pathogenic fungus cultivated under optimal and stress conditions. Furthermore, the analyses of these compounds in post-incubation filtrates were done. For identification purposes the analytical method allows identification and quantitation of selected mycotoxins including beauvericin , fumonisin B1, enniatin A and B and destruxin A based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Only beauvericin was detected in very low amounts in C. coronatus mycelium extract cultivated under optimal condition. In the extract of C. coronatus mycelium grown on LB 12.3 ± 0.1 µg/g of beauvericin was determined, while in the extract of C. coronatus mycelium grown on MM medium beauvericin content was lower and amounted 4.6 ± 0.1 µg/g. Also the presence of beauvericin was confirmed in postincubaction filtrate extract (MM). The content of this compound was 2.2 ± 0.1 µg/g. In other extracts beauvericin was not detected. In addition, in the tested extracts other compounds were not detected.

Keywords Mycotoxin Production, Conidiobolus, quantitative analysis.

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Effects of heavy metals' toxicity on plants and enhancement of plant defense mechanisms of Si-mediation “Review"

Abstract Today’s [e.g., “heavy metals (HMs)”] caused by anthropogenic activities have negative impacts on our environment and food productions. HMs can be classified as either essential or nonessential. A trace of essential HMs, such as Cu, Mo, and Zn, can be necessary for plant metabolism, but excess of them can harm the plant growth and development. Nonessential HMs, however, are toxic for plant metabolism and have damaging effects on enzyme activity, photosynthetic properties, cell membrane, permeability and eventually plant growth. Plants with avoidance and tolerance against stress could manage extreme HM stress in soils so that with special mechanisms, such as specific translation and metal accumulation, can elevate abiotic and biotic stress in plants. Moreover, in cells with mechanisms such as [e.g., “Metallothionein (MTs)”] (metal binding proteins) or [e.g., “Phytochelatin (PCs)”] storage and crystallization could reduce the HM stress in the cell wall, plasma membrane, cytosol, tonoplast and vacuoles. Meanwhile, the role of Si-mediation in detoxification of HMs is so bold. Si-mediation with increasing antioxidant, reducing lipid peroxidation, and increasing efficiency of photosynthetic properties elevates the HMs and other biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

Keywords HMs, stress, cells defense mechanism, Silicon.

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Added Value on Sade Village and Bau Nyale Festival in Autoimmune Diseases Immunization Travel: Supported by Aptamers Technology

AbstractPrevalence of Autoimmune diseases (AD) are high in developed countries and low in developing countries. Wall of worm were associated with lower level of allergy and support the hygiene hypothesis (HyHy). Long term use of Interferon as drug for AD and synthetic vaccine made by epitope mapping are global economic burden. Adolescence from developed countries traveling to Ghana forwarding AD-HyHy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for fighting AD have been developed in hygiene countries such as UK, Japan and Korea, meanwhile the aims of this study are reveal an added value to Sade village 'FMT culture' and Bau Nyale/Mandalika Princess festival for Nature Vaccination on AD. These local nature vaccination needs to be known by policy maker and political doer and could be a translational-medicine education topic to lessen AD economic global burden. Method: Systematic-review and Bayesian network analysis. EBSCO host search engine were used. Result: Description of 9 Publications of meta-analysis are chosen. Conclusions: The increasing of immunity in developing countries and decreasing in clean habit educated family is based on hygiene hypothesis, could be answered by local life-style and festival. These added value for local tour package has been supported by affimers and aptamers contemporary technology based on bacteria and worm epitope mapping.

Keywordshygiene hypothesis-autoimmune diseases, bacteria and worm cell wall, aptamers, epitope mapping, Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT).

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SERS of insecticides and fungicides assisted by Au and Ag nanostructures produced by laser techniques

Abstract This study deals with the use of laser techniques for preparation of advanced Au and Ag nanostructures on SiO2 (001) substrates to be applied to high-resolution analyses, namely, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analyses. The optical and morphological properties of the nanostructures are compared with those of the PLD thin films. The activity is tested of the structures fabricated as substrates for SERS covered by small quantities (usually applied in agricultural medicine) of the Aktara 25 BG (thiamethoxam) insecticide and the Dithane DG (mancozeb) fungicide. To the best of our knowledge, Raman spectra of Aktara 25 BG are presented for the first time. The study has a direct bearing on the human health and food quality by way of assisting the detection of small amounts or residue of harmful pollutants.

Keywords laser deposition and annealing, Ag and Au nanostructures, SERS, insecticide Aktara 25 BG, fungicide Dithane DG.

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Effects of Bradyrhizobia and Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivated on Ferrasols of Cujut district, DakNong province, Vietnam

Abstract A field experiment was conducted in Summer-Spring cropping season 2016 at Cujut district, DakNong province, Vietnam to study the effects of rhizobia and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on soybean (cv. Cujut) cultivated on ferralsols. The experiment consisted of six treatments as follows: control (no fertilizer, no inoculant), 240 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15, rhizobial inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 20 kg N/ha applied at 10 days after sowing [DAS], PSB inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 20 kg N/ha at 10 DAS, rhizobial and PSB inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 400 kg fertilizer/ha + 20 kg N/ha at 10 DAS and endophytic bacteria inoculant [with liquid cover seeds] + 400 kg fertilizer/ha + 20 kg N/ha at 10 DAS from June to August, 2016. The results showed that application of rhizobial inoculant and/or PSB inoculant produced significantly higher yield component, grain yield than control and did not differ from 240 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15. Consequently, application of rhizobia and PSB improved soil fertility after harversting however using mixture of rhizobia and PSB inoculation plus 400 kg biofertilizer/ha +20 kg N/ha for soybean cultivation supported yield component, grain yield and oil, protein in seed than control and equivalent with treatment of chemical fertilizer (240 kg/ha NPK 15-15-15). This technique not only increased grain yield, incomes for farmers but also improved soil fertility.

Keywords - Endophytes, Ferralsols, Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, Rhizobia, Soybean.

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The Influence of Soil Organic Matter on the Uptake of Silver Nanoparticles in a Terrestrial System

Abstract The uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles in soil was investigated in the presence of increasing concentrations of soil organic matter. Especially, the effect of Humus component of soil organic matter on the uptake of Ag from silver nanoparticles was studied. Two insect species, Acheta domesticus and Tenebrio molitor, and two plant species, Helianthus annuus and Sorghum vulgare, were exposed to silver nanoparticles(25 ppm in the presence of increasing concentrations of Humus (0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20% Humus) in soil (by weight). The techniques of transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the silver nanoparticles used in the study. An inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer was used to measure the levels of silver in test samples. Increasing concentrations of Humus in soil has resulted in an increase in the sulfur content and cation exchange capacity of the soil. A general decrease in the concentrations of silver was observed in Acheta domesticus and both the plant species, as a function of increasing concentrations of Humus in soil. In the case of plant species, the accumulation of silver nanoparticles was predominantly observed in the root tissue. Additionally, the translocation of silver from the roots to other plant tissues was observed in the case of Helianthus annuus. Results from this study suggest that the presence of Humus in soil could possibly decrease the uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles by insect and plant species.

Keywords Silver nanoparticles, Acheta domesticus, Tenebrio molitor, Helianthus annus, Sorghum vulgare, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer, Soil organic matter, Humus.

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Renewable energy resource of Sri Lanka! A review

Abstract Energy and related sectors play a key role in the developmental profile of Sri Lanka. Energy demand is going up and up with time due to population growth and industrial revolutions. In order to meet such growing needs probably we are relying on fossil fuel in a large fraction, which is leading to many negative environmental impacts. Hence the government decided to take off many long term as well as short term planes to promote renewable energy sector in Sri Lanka as it gives minimum impact to environment and its quality than the fossil fuel. This paper gives basic information about renewable energy resources of Sri Lanka and their development &future perspectives.

Keywords Renewable Energy, Fossil fuel, Sri Lanka, Environment.

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The Factors of Land use Conversion from Settlement Area to Commercial Area at IR. Soekarno/ Merr Street, Rungkut Street, and Medokan Ayu Street, Surabaya

Abstract— Land use that does not conform to its city plan is a common phenomenon that happens on fast growing cities. Land use conversion usually caused by discrepancy between the reasoning that underlie a city plan and market’s judgement. At the area around Ir. Soekarno Street / MERR that designed as a part of Surabaya City Ring Road, the land use is gradually changing from settlement area into commercial area. In urban planning, it is important to understand the cause of land use change in order to be able to handle the implication well. Therefore, the research objective was to identify the factors that affecting land use conversion from settlement area into commercial area at Ir. Soekarno Street/MERR, Rungkut Madya Street, and Medokan Ayu Street. The research’s methods are descriptive. The descriptive analysis was used to describe the land use change pattern at Ir. Soekarno Street/MERR, Rungkut Madya Street, and Medokan Ayu Street. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyses the factors that affecting land use conversion from settlement area into commercial area. The result showed that the factors that affecting land use conversion are land’s value, average income of the land owner, and land use in the surrounding area.

Keywords conversion factor, land use, settlement, commercial area, regression analysis.

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Red Algae (Rhodophyta) in Biomonitoring of Coastal Ecosystems

Abstract The formation, species composition and functional role of red algae were studied in the Black Sea’s coastal zone. In sublittoral plant communities, red algae are dominant both by their number of species in the phytocenosis and by their active thallus - the one that ensures their high metabolism. Algae with a large specific surface area of thallus can accumulate heavy metals in higher concentrations. In the paper, we discuss possibilities of using red algae as biomarkers of marine pollution, and as bio filters in the processes of water natural.

Keywords biological monitoring, biomarkers, heavy metals, red algae (Rhodophyta), sublittoral zone.

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Factors Affecting the Acceptance of Integration Tend Rice Fields

Abstract Land fragmentation is one of the country's traditional agricultural structural elements which nowadays as one of the main obstacles to agricultural development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the willingness to accept integration of rice fields by the lifters who strive in Behshahr interest and identify factors affecting it. In this respect, the required data through the completion of a questionnaire among lifters who strive in Behshahr interest collected and analyzed using Logit analysis. The results of the study showed that the amount of variables, age, education, experience, income, capital, area under cultivation and the distance of the Earth from each other parts have a significant difference. At the end of the research based on the results, decide to present.

Keywords consolidate, the tendency toward admission, rice, Behshahr.

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